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Archive for June, 2011

•  An anniversary medal is to a company what a birthday cake is to a person.

•  Give a medal to a person. Give a plaque to a company or organization.

•  No one collects one medal. That is the basic premise for every medal series.

•  It is better to have a simple medal design with elaborate detail than an elaborate design with simple detail.

•  To goldplate a bronze medal is to gild a lily. To gild an award medal is to create a higher class medal.

•  There is no greater pride in the world than that of the recipient of a gold medal.

•  An average numismatist talks about coins, a small numismatist talks about tokens, a great numismatist talks about medals.

•  God made the metal — m-e-t-a-l, man makes the medal — m-e-d-a-l.

•  No undercuts in a coin or medal model to be diestruck – artists must bevel all relief.


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Augustus Saint-Gaudens

Augustus Saint-Gaudens

Henry Hering and Adolph Weinman were like the Weil Brothers, Henri and Felix. They were all sculptors’ assistants. But where the Weils worked for sculptors Alexander Doyle, Philip Martiny, Jules Roine, Olin Levi Warner and their brother-in-law George Wagner, Henry Hering and Adolph Weinman worked for the most prominent sculptor in America, Augustus Saint-Gaudens.

Felix Weil had first met Adolph Weinman at the National Academy of Design, where they were both students about 1889. Weinman, a life-long friend of the Weils, though sometimes erasable in that relationship, was to become a top sculptor in his own right. Through it all, however, he was to use the talents of the two Weils, and came to use their services in being able to reduce bas-relief models, cut dies on their Janvier machine, and ultimately to produce medals from his models.

The Weils had first met Henry Hering at Philip Martiny’s studio in New York City in 1890. Previously Martiny had been an assistant to Saint-Gaudens and through Saint-Gaudens he had been awarded the contract to prepare all the sculpture for the Agriculture Building at the Chicago World’s Fair to be opened in 1892.

Martiny had hired Adolph Weinman, and a handful of other helpers –  Isidore Konti, Frank Lemon, Anton Schaff and Henry Hering – before Felix Weil came on board. Working side-by-side these sculptors prepared models in New York City to be shipped to Chicago to be cast there.

The Forestry Building on the fairgrounds had been completed and was available for sculptors because of its giant size and glass roof with good light. The building was divided in half by drapery with Martiny’s assistants working on one side and another group of sculptors under Karl Bitter working on the other side. The sculptors had brought the models, started in New York, to this building in Chicago to be enlarged and cast there.

After the work was finished in Chicago, the sculptors all returned to New York. Henry Hering worked for Martiny at his studio in Rockville Center before he, like Weinman, became a Saint-Gaudens’ assistant.  Henri worked on the sculptural decoration for the Waldorf Hotel. Felix goes to Paris for a year’s study at the School of Decorative Arts at the Louvre Museum, then returns to New York to work on the John Paul Jones statue by Charles H. Niehaus.

So it is evident that the sculptors, and their assistants, were a close nit group at this time. They all knew each other and often had worked together in a constant shifting among the studios of whoever got the contract to prepare some monument or sculpture or decorative architecture in a project too large for one artist to accomplish. Thus whoever got the contract would hire their friends as sculpture assistants.

Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural Medal

Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural Medal
Credit: Tom Mulvaney (Smithsonian Institution)

The Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural Medal was required after Roosevelt’s successful election in 1904. The last month of that year, and into the next was a flurry of committee meetings, suggestions, assignments, but the most influence was Roosevelt’s alone. He wanted a more artistic medal than what had been produced in the past.

The medal committee finally permitted a larger medal and agreed that a sculptor  be permitted to design and model the medal in preference to the medallic engravers employed in the past. The task was assigned to the top sculptor in America at the time, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, at Roosevelt’s insistence.

From design suggestions, Saint-Gaudens directed the design. But it was Adolph Weinman who created the actual model. His model was large for such an intended medal. He had prepared the president’s portrait in a 20-inch bas-relief. Plus a similar size of an eagle for the reverse.

Weinman knew how to reduce that large size. He took the models to Henri Weil who had to make an intermediate reduction in paraffin, cast that reduction, then make a subsequent reduction for a more suitable size to cut 3-inch dies and hubs to be turned over to Tiffany & Co, which was charged with the production of one gold medal and 150 bronze medals.

The American Philosophical Society was the spirit behind the movement for a medal to celebrate the bicentennial of Benjamin Franklin’s birth. This was to be celebrated January 17, 1906, the anniversary date. The Society’s initial effort started three years before, in April 1903.The Philosophical Society took a broad move by naming President Roosevelt a member at that time to insure its adoption.

A year later they sought enabling legislation for this to be sponsored by the State Department. It was assumed the medal would be struck by the Philadelphia Mint, but engraver Charles Barber stated it would take six months to reduce such a model, remembering how much effort was extended in 1892 for the Chicago World’s Fair medal from sculptor’s models, again in this instance, from Saint-Gaudens’ models.

Saint-Gaudens had accepted the commission as a project for his brother Louis. But the project did not go well. Author Michael Moran states in his book Striking Change:

The project did not get off to a smooth start. Morris called for a meeting of the committee at the end of September 1904. At the last minute Gus had to cancel because of sciatica. The meeting was rescheduled to October 21. Thus Gus was in New York for, among other things, this meeting on the Franklin medal when his [New York City] studio burned. It was an ill omen.

On top of that Saint-Gaudens was suffering from cancer, devoting less attention to the Franklin Medal. Also at this time he was being challenged by President Roosevelt to create models for a new American coin.

The date of the celebration came and went. Saint-Gaudens missed the deadline. He had not delivered models in time. Innumerable changes were required. Moran recounts the reasons thoroughly for six pages in his book, above mentioned.  Because of Saint-Gaudens illness, and other factors, the models were greatly delayed.  Henry Hering brought the models from Aspet in Cornish, New Hampshire, where Saint-Gaudens was recuperating to Henri Weil in New York.

Below is the entire entry on Augustus Saint-Gaudens from the author’s Databank of American Artists. It is not the longest – Victor D. Brenner’s is longer – but none is more important than the medallic items created by America’s most preeminent sculptor.  See page 12 for the two medals of Medallic Art interest.

SAINT-GAUDENS, Augustus  (1848-1907) Irish-American sculptor.

Born Dublin, Ireland, 1 March 1848.
Came to America the year of his birth where his family arrived in Boston in September, but settled in New York City in October 1848.

Saint-Gaudens’s first relief work was carving portrait cameos during the period 1861-1875 (Dryfhout catalog 1–9, passim to 55). His work in clay and plaster date from 1867 for the bronze bust of his father, Bernard P.E. Saint-Gaudens (Dryfhout 15). Much of his early work, however, was carving in marble and his first bas-reliefs were a pair of cameo-style marble reliefs created in 1873 (Dryfhout 43, 46).

In 1877 he created three bronze reliefs, his first in this technique, with the portrait plaquettes of David Maitland Armstrong, William G. Bunce and George W. Mayonard (Dryfhout 61-63). That same year he finished a 32-inch relief for the Henry E. Montgomery Memorial (outside the parameters of this databank’s arbitrary limit of 18-inch size to be listed, but those with connections to collectible size under 18-inch are listed under Sculpture).

Saint-Gaudens was a master of bas-relief. He created two dozen oversize relief plaques (Dryfhout 64 passim to 208). These were often mounted on wood frames, or over mantels inside, or for the base of monuments outside. Those 13 reliefs that had reductions – as he often chose to do – are listed here for these smaller size reductions.

His preferred method for his medallic art was casting, for reliefs and even for cast medals. He only authorized one medal to be struck – the 1892 Columbian Exposition Award Medal – and the U.S Treasury officials rejected his reverse. He never authorized a struck medal thereafter, although two were indeed struck: the 1905-6 Cornish Masque Commemorative Plaquette and the 1906 Franklin Bicentennial Medallion. But he was too ill at the time to mount a strong objection.

While he often shared the medallic work with his many assistants – or his brother – he had a strong influence in their design, even if another hand did the actual modeling. The signature was always his. (Dryfhout lists 20 of these assistants, there were sometimes as many as 15 working on different sculpture projects at once, almost like a sculpture factory! Every one of these artists went on to become well known on their own, it was, in effect, better experience than an art school.)

Saint-Gaudens was very knowledgeable in casting and working with clay and plaster. Virtually all his work was cast from a plaster pattern. However, his cast models for the Columbian Exposition Medal were altered (reverse even replaced!) by the engraving staff of the U.S. Mint; this led to his suspicions of striking thereafter and his displeasure with Philadelphia Mint engravers Charles Barber and George Morgan.

In his later years (even with his assistants) Saint-Gaudens delayed delivering the finished product on time. He and his assistants worked on the Seated Lincoln for nine years (1897-1906). Delivery of the Franklin Medal was a year and a half past the date of the ceremony! Perhaps this was due more to Saint-Gaudens striving for perfection rather than tardiness, overwork or a concern for a ceremony, after all, if a committee wanted a Saint-Gaudens’ creation they had to put up with his idiosyncrasies.

It was the Franklin Bicentennial Medal that brings Saint-Gaudens within the sphere of America’s Medallic Art Company.

He gave his full personal attention, however, to creating America’s most beautiful coin design, the high relief $20 gold piece of 1907. Accredited as the modern world’s most attractive coin, his desire was to prove to an American president – Theodore Roosevelt – that 20th century coin design could equal that of ancient Greeks. A century later, his art concept was indeed solidified by the U.S. Treasury issuing his high relief $20 coin Double Eagle as a gold bullion coin, replicating his 1907 original high relief in a 21st century version.

In addition to his accreditation as creating the modern world’s most attractive coin design, he is also universally considered – by every standard – to be America’s most preeminent sculptor.

His monograms are noteworthy. He signed the $20 coin model with AG monogram. It appears he tried to use a different style ASG monogram for each medallic work, a feat he could not do for his reliefs or sculpture in the round.

Recipient of the first American Academy of Arts and Letter Gold Medal for Sculpture, 1909. A decade earlier he was one of the founders and Fellow Member of the National Sculpture Society.

Died Cornish, New Hampshire, 3 August 1907, the year his models were first struck as United States gold coins.

C   O   I   N   S

1905-06 One Cent Coin (unaccepted models) . . . . . Dryfhout 204A
1906-07 $10 Gold Coin (unaccepted models) . . . . . Dryfhout 204B
1907 Eagle $10 No Motto Gold. . . . . . .Breen 7094-7099, KM 125
1908 Eagle $10 Motto Gold . . . . . .  Baxter 201, Breen 7100-7137,
          ANS (IECM) 25, Dryfhout 204B, KM 130
          Illustrated: A49 {2009} Tolles. Saint-Gaudens Exhib . .p 48
1907 Double Eagle $20 High Relief Prototypes. . . . . . . Baxter 202,
          Breen 7355-7361
1907 Double Eagle $20 No Motto. . . . . . . . . . . . Breen 7362-7367,
          Dryfhout 204C KM 126
1908 Double Eagle $20 Motto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANS (IECM) 26,
          Baxter 203, Breen 7368-7419, KM 127
          Illustrated: A49 {2009} Tolles. Saint-Gaudens Exhib . .p 48

B  U  L  L  I  O  N     C  O  I  N  S

(Saint-Gaudens Type Bullion Coin Gold Coins; modified from Augustus Saint-Gaudens obv design; rev designed by Miley Busiek and modeled by Sherl J. Winter; struck by U.S. Mint and issued in proof surface each year):

1986 American Eagle One Ounce Fine Gold Fifty
Dollar Coin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .KM 219

1986 American EagleOne Half Ounce Fine Gold
Twenty-Five Dollar Coin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  KM 218

1986 American Eagle One Quarter Ounce Fine
Gold Ten Dollar Coin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .KM 217

1986 American Eagle One Tenth Ounce Fine Gold
Five Dollar Coin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KM 216

2009 Double Eagle $20 Ultra High Relief (replicating the
1907 High Relief Prototype) . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

R  E  L  I  E  F  S

1876-77 Le Noble (Leonie Marguerite) Circular
Relief . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dryfhout 66

1877 Armstrong (David Maitland) Plaquette . . . . . . . . . . Reliefs 4,
         Dryfhout 61

1877 Bruce (William G.) Plaquette . . . . . . .  Reliefs 5, Dryfhout 62

1877 Maynard (George Willoughby) Plaque . . . . . . . . . .  Reliefs 6,
Dryfhout 63

1878 Armstrong (Helen Maitland) Plaquette . . . . . . .  Dryfhout 72,
Reliefs 9

1878 Bunner (Andrew F.) Plaquette . . . . . .  Reliefs 8, Dryfhout 73

1878 Cary (Walter Cary) Plaquette . . . . . . Reliefs 14, Dryfhout 76

1878 McKim (Charles Follen) Plaquette . . . .Tolles 9, Dryfhout 75
Collection: Metropolitan Museum of Art . . . . . . . . . . 24.20
Illustrated: A49 {2009} Tolles. Saint-Gaudens Exhib .  p 13

1878 Three Friends Caricature Plaquette [Saint-Gaudens,
Stanford White, Charles McKim]. . . . . . . . . . . . .Reliefs 10,
Tolles 8, Dryfhout 74
Collection: Metropolitan Museum of Art . . . . . . . 1992.306

1878 Picknell (William L.) Plaqette . .. . . . .  Reliefs 7, Dryfhout 71
Exhibited: National Academy of Design AE5 (1908) . #366

1879 Cary (Walter Cary) With Hat Plaque . . . .. . . . .  Dryfhout 77,
Reliefs 15

1879 Chapin (Emelia Ward) Plaque. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dryfhout 81

1879 Gilder Family Plaque [Richard Watson Gilder,
wife Helena de Kay, son Rodman] . . . . . . . . .  Dryfhout 82,
Reliefs 11, Tolles 11
Collection: Metropolitan Museum of Art . . . . . . . 2002.445
Illustrated: N39 {2008} Moran, Striking Change, page . . 32
Illustrated: A49 {2009} Tolles. Saint-Gaudens Exhib . .p 11

1879 Giler (Rodman de Kay) Plaque. . . . . Reliefs 12, Dryfhout 83,
Tolles 12
Collection: Metropolitan Museum of Art . . . . . . . . 1994.50

1879 Johnston (William E.) Plaque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dryfhout 79

1879 Love (Maria) Plaquette . . . . . . . . . . . .Reliefs 16, Dryfhout 80

1879 Millet (Fancis D.) Relief . . . . . . . . . . . Tolles 10, Dryfhout 78
Collection: Metropolitan Museum of Art . . . . . . . . . 10.223

1880 Bastien-Lepage (Jules) Plaque. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dryfhout 87,
Tolles 15,  Reliefs 18, Baxter 74
Collection: Metropolitan Museum of Art . . . . . . . . .12.76.4
Illustrated: A49 {2009} Tolles. Saint-Gaudens Exhib . .p 13

1880 Shiff (Henry) Plaque . . . . . . . . . . . .  Reliefs 17, Dryfhout 85,
Storer 3367

1881 Holland (Josiah G.) Relief . . . . . . . . . Reliefs 24, Dryfhout 92

1881 Lee (Sarah Redwood) Plaquette (reduction from larger
plaque). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reliefs 22, Dryfhout 94

1881 Ward (Samuel Gray) Plaque. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dryfhout 95,
Reliefs 23, Tolles 17
Collection: Metropolitan Museum of Art . . . . . . . . . . .12.29
Illustrated: A49 {2009} Tolles. Saint-Gaudens Exhib . .p 18

1882 Saint-Gaudens (Homer) Plaque . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dryfhout 100,
Reliefs 25, Tolles 20
Collection: Metropolitan Museum of Art . . . . .. . . .  05.15.2

1882 Vanderbilt (Cornelius I) Plaque. . . . .Dryfhout 101, Reliefs 26
Illustrated: A49 {2009} Tolles. Saint-Gaudens Exhib . .p 18

1882 Vanderbilt (Gertrude) Plaque . . . . . . Dryfhout 102, Reliefs 27

1884 Dunrobin Circular Relief [deerhound dog] . . . .  Dryfhout 110

1884 Gray (Asa) Physician Plaque [over limits of this
book but listed in Storer; no reductions made
of this plaque]. . . . . . . . . . .Storer 1375, 1949, Dryfhout 112

1884 White (Bessie Smith) Circular Relief . . . . . . . . .Dryfhout 109,
Reliefs 30

1885 Beaman (William E.) Circular Relief. . . . . . . . . Dryfhout 116,
        Reliefs 33
Exhibited: National Academy of Design AE5 (1908) .  #368

1887-88 Stevenson (Robert Louis) Plaque [first
version] . . . . . . . . . . . . .Reliefs 39, Baxter 76, Dryfhout 133
Auctions:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  PCA 45:346
Collection: Metropolitan Museum of Art . . . . . . . . . 12.76.1
Collection: Yale Univ Art Gallery (5 varieties >1) . 322-326
Illustrated: A49 {2009} Tolles. Saint-Gaudens Exhib . .p 29

1888 Van Rensselaer (Mariana Griswold) Plaque (reduction
from larger plaque). . . . . . . . . . . .  Reliefs 35, Dryfhout 130
Collection: Metropolitan Museum of Art . . . . . . . . . 17.104
Illustrated: A49 {2009} Tolles. Saint-Gaudens Exhib . .p 28

1889 Cox (Kenyon) Plaque. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Dryfhout 136

1889-90 Mead (Mary Gertrude) Relief. . . .Reliefs 36, Dryfhout 137
Collection: Yale Univ Art Gallery [>1].320-321, 1937.4003

1892 Cleveland (Frances Folsom) Circular Relief . . . . . .Reliefs 44,
Dryfhout 146

1892 Novy Circular Relief [infant portrait of Louis P.
Clark, whose mother was Saint-Gaudens model and
mistress, Davida Johnson Clark]. . . . . . . . . . . . .  Reliefs 45,
Dryfhout 147

1894 Beaman (Charles C.) Relief (reduction from a
large relief). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Reliefs 46, Dryfhout 155

1898 Howells (Mildred and William Dean) Plaque . . . .  Reliefs 47,
Dryfhout 168

1898 Howells (Mildred) Portrait Medallion (from larger
relief of both her and husband William). . . . .  Dryfhout 168
Illustrated: Vermeule A15 {1971} Numismatic Art, p. . 100

1899 Danna (Charles A.) Plaquette (reduction from large
relief). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Dryfhout 170

1899 Stevenson (Robert Lewis) Portrait Plaque [second
version] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reliefs 40, Dryfhout 188
Auctions:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  PCA 54:339

1900 Beaman (Hettie Evarts) Plaquette (reduction from
larger relief) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Reliefs 48, Dryfhout 174

1901-03 Gray (Horace) Plaquette (reduction from larger
relief). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Reliefs 49, Dryfhout 177

1901 Rogers (Jacob C.) Plaque (reduction from larger
relief). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Dryfhout 178

1902 Gray (Anna Lyman) Plaque (reduction from larger
relief). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Dryfhout 182

1902 MacVeagh (Wayne) Circular Relief . . . . . . . . . . . . Reliefs 50,
Dryfhout 180
Auctions:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  PCA 64:682

1902-03 MacVeagh (Wayne and Virginia C.) Plaque (reduction
from larger relief). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Dryfhout 180

1902-03 Moseley (William O.) Plaque . . .Reliefs 51, Dryfhout 186

1903 Stevenson (Robert Louis) Plaque [third version,
with reduction from even larger plaque). . . . .Dryfhout 188,
Reliefs 41

1903 Wolcott (Roger) Relief (reduction from larger
plaque). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dryfhout 183

1904 Adams (Henry) Caricature Medallion . . . . . . . . . . .Reliefs 53,
Dryfhout 191

1904 Finn (James W.) Caricature Plaquette . . . . . . . . . . .Reliefs 54,
Dryfhout 192

1904 Platt (Charles A.) Caricature Plaquette. . . . . . . . . . .Reliefs 52,
Dryfhout 193

1903-04 Matthews (Stanley and Mary Theaker) Plaquette
(reduction from large plaque). . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dryfhout 194

(1905 ca) Victory Circular Relief (also called Nikh-Eiphuh
Relief; cast by Gorham). . . . . . . . . Dryfhout 205, Baxter 80
Illustrated: N39 {2008} Moran, Striking Change, page . 211

1905 Sage (Dean) Circular Relief (reduction from
larger relief; cast by Gorham) . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dryfhout 200

1908 Le Page Relief (cast by Gorham) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1908 Stevenson (Robert Louis) Portrait Relief Plaque
(18-inch cast by Gorham) . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .Gorhan QQT

1908 Stevenson (Robert Louis) Portrait Relief Plaque
(12-inch cast by Gorham) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gorhan QQT

        S  E  A  L  S

1893 Smithsonian Institution Seal (design in plaster for
institution’s seal; obv unadopted, rev used for rev
of Hodgkins Medal, see below). . . . . . . . . . . . Dryfhout 150

   B   A   D   G   E   S

1889 Washington Inaugural Centennial Committee Badge (a
reduction of St-Gaudens larger medal). . . . . . . . Douglas 54
Auctions:. . . . . . . .  PCA 43:298, PCA 45:60, PCA 47:289,
PCA 50:440, PCA 56:193, PCA 68:216
Collection: Cornell Univ Johnson Art Gallery . . . .. . . . 347
Illustrated: N39 {2008} Moran, Striking Change,  page . 51

C   A   S   T     M   E   D   A   L   S

1885 Sargent (John Singer) Cast Medal . . . . . . . . . . .  Dryfhout 86,
Tolles 14, Reliefs 19, Baxter 75
Collection: Metropolitan Museum of Art . . . . . . . . . . 13.78
Illustrated: Vermeule A15 {1971} Numismatic Art p. . . . 98
Illustrated: MA2 {1999} Stahl, Medal In America, p . .  139

1889 Washington (George) Inaugural Centennial Medallion
(designed by Augustus St-Gaudens, modeled by Philip
Martiny; cast by Gorham) . . . . . . . . . . . . . (73), Douglas 53,
Baxter 77, Dryfhout 134, Walters 195
Auctions:. . . . . .. . CAL 28:543, CAL 29:825, CAL 30:522,
CAL 30:783, CAL 31:317, CAL 35:914; J&J 8:281-283,
J&J 10:1499-1501, J&J 11:786, J&J 14:672, J&J 15:256,
J&J 22:981, J&J 25:344, J&J 26:593; PCA 44:96,
PCA 45:59, PCA 46:157, PCA 48:546, PCA 50:439,
PCA 51:337, PCA 51:1070, PCA 54:438, PCA 55:84,
PCA 57:451, PCA 59:490, PCA 60:224, PCA 61:238,
PCA 64:250, PCA 65:361, PCA 66:250, PCA 67:241,
PCA 68:215, PCA 69:337, PCA 71:218, PCA 80:211
Collection: American Numismatic Society [>1]  1976.263.9
Collection: Cornell Univ Johnson Art Gallery . . . . . . . . 346
Collection: Metropolitan Museum of Art . . . . . . . . . 90.18.1
Collection: Newark Museum. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00.350
Collection: Princeton Library Vermeule (NC000) . .  .. . 143
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . . . 377:279
Collection: Walters Art Gallery Baltimore. . . . . .
Collection: Washington & Lee University. . . . . . .
Exhibited: Utah Museum of Fine Arts (1991) . . . . . . . . .143
Illustrated: P2 The Numismatist 56:1 (January 1943) p . . 94
Illustrated: A15 {1971} Vermeule, Numismatic Art page 96
Illustrated: MA2 {1999} Stahl, Medal In America, page  52
Illustrated: A49 {2009} Tolles. Saint-Gaudens Exhib . .p 52

1892 Columbian Exposition Award Medal (designed by
Augustus, modeled by Louis Saint-Gaudens). Dryfhout 151,
ANS (IECM) 27, Baxter 86, type of Eglit 330
Auctions:. . . . . . PCA 80:296[cast of rejected reverse]

1898 Howells (William Dean) Cast Medallion (portrait from
larger plaque of Howells and his wife, Mildred, with
addition of lettering for medallion cast). . . . . .Dryfhout 168

1905-6 Massachusetts Civil Service Reform Association
Women’s Auxiliary Medallion (designed by St-Gaudens,
modeled by Frances Grimes, cast by Gorham) . .Storer 1321,
ANS (IECM) 3, Dryfhout 199
Auctions:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PCA 80:405
Collection: Cornell Univ Johnson Art Gallery . . . . . . . . 349
Illustrated: C14 {1996} Marqusee, covers, p 69, with
comments on the creation of this medal by DWJ.

1906 Franklin (Benjamin) Bicentennial Medallion (designed
by Augustus, modeled by Louis Saint-Gaudens; earliest
variety) . . . . . . . . . .  Greenslet GM-117, Fuld FR.M.UN.6
Auctions:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  PCA 44:342, PCA 45:351
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . . . 391:372
Illustrated: N39 {2008} Moran, Striking Change,color p .19

G  A  L  V  A  N  O     C  A  S  T  S

1879 Millet (Francis Davis) Plaque. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Dryfhout 78,
Reliefs 13, Baxter 73
Collection: Metropolitan Museum of Art . . . . . . . . .  10.223
Exhibited: National Academy of Design AE5 (1908) no 370

1892 Columbian Exposition Pattern Galvanos (obv by
Saint-Gaudens rev by Charles E. Barber) [exhibited by
American Numismatic Society, 1911]. . . . ANS (IECM) 27,
Rulau X4, Eglit 330

S  T  R  U  C  K    M  E  D  A  L  S

1892 Columbian Exposition Award Medal (designed by
Augustus, modeled by Louis Saint-Gaudens). Dryfhout 151,
ANS (IECM) 27, Baxter 86
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . . . . 1961.137.2
Illustrated: P8 Medallic Sculpture 2 (Fall 1985)
Illustrated: P9 Medallies (1987) both sides, page. . . . . . .112
Illustrated: MA2 {1999} Stahl, Medal In America, p . . . 138
Illustrated: M57 {2007} Jaeger-Bowers, 100 Great #53, p 64

1892 Columbian Exposition Medal (obv by Augustus St-Gaudens,
rev by C.E. Barber; dies made at Philadelphia Mint,
medals struck by Scovill, Waterbury). .  . . . .  (75), Eglit 90,
ANS (IECM) 23, Baxter 87, Rulau X3,
National Maritime W 3, Storer 160
Auctions:. . . . . . . CAL 28:219, CAL 30:783, CAL 31:319,
CAL 35:527; J&J 7:187-188, J&J 9:607, J&J 10:149,
J&J 11:325, J&J 13:273, J&J 14:283, J&J 15:172,
J&J 16:577-689, J&J 17:577, J&J 19:572, J&J 23:310,
J&J 25:205, J&J 27:1080; NAS 22:4094-4096; PCA 42:340,
PCA 43:347, PCA 46:201-202, PCA 46:1089-1090,
PCA 47:344-345, PCA 49:361, PCA 50:279, PCA 50:1202,
PCA 51:235-236, PCA 52:231, PCA 53:223, PCA 55:259,
PCA 56:388, PCA 56:1747, PCA 57:302, PCA 57:454-455,
PCA 59:491-492, PCA 63:318, PCA 64:550, PCA 65:395,
PCA 66:274, PCA 67:267, PCA 68:303, PCA 69:341-342,
PCA 71:396-397, PCA 72: 482, PCA 80:295
Archives: Inventory of Am Sculpture . . . . . .  IAS 1200073
Collection: American Numismatic Society [>1] 1933.64.12
Collection: Art Institte of Chicago. . . . . . . . . . . .1920.1031
Collection: Cornell Univ Johnson Art Gallery . . . . . . .  348
Collection: Metropolitan Museum of Art . . . . . . . . . 1995.4
Collection: Newark Museum New Jersey . . . . . . . .  00.185
Collection: Princeton Library Vermeule (NC2002-72)143A
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  .362:189
Illustrated: Century Magazine 54:6 (June 1897) p . 198,199
Illustrated: International Studio 33:2 (Feb 1908) p . . . . 138
Illustrated: A15 {1971} Vermeule Art in America, p .94-95
Illustrated: P8 Medallic Sculpture 2 (Fall 1985) page . . . . 8
Illustrated: P9 Medallies (1987) both sides, page. . . . . . . 77
Illustrated: MA2 {1999} Stahl, Medal In America, 137-138
Illustrated: A49 {2009} Tolles. Saint-Gaudens Exhib . .p 71
Illustrated: M57 {2007} Jaeger-Bowers, 100 Great #53 p 64
Illustrated: M62 {2008}Swoger, Nat Comm Medals p . . 34
Illustrated: N39 {2008} Moran, Striking Change, color p 14

1893 Columbian Exposition Medal (small size gold using
St-Gaudens and Barber designs) . . . . . . . . . . .
Auctions:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  PCA 59:11

1905 Roosevelt (Theodore) Inaugural Medal (designed by
Saint-Gaudens, modeled by Adolph Weinman; reductions
made by Henri Weil from Weinman’s 20-inch models;
struck by Tiffany) . . .  Reliefs 55, Baxter 78, Dryfhout 197,
Tolles 46, Levine TR 1905
Auctions:. . . . BMP 2:5779-5781; PCA 43:22, PCA 44:239,
PCA 55:116, PCA 64:275, PCA 68:239, PCA 70:291,
PCA 71:14, PCA 73:443
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . . .  1961.137.1
Collection: Metropolitan Museum of Art . . . . . . . 2008.112
Collection: Princeton Library Vermeule (NC000) . . . . . 160
Exhibited: Utah Museum of Fine Arts (1991) . . . . . . . . .160
Illustrated: Art & Archaeology 8: (July-Aug 1919) p . . .199
Illustrated: Vermeule A15 {1971} Numismatic Art p. . . 109
Illustrated: Jaeger-Bowers M57 {2007} 100 Great #27, p 38
Illustrated: Jaeger M61{2008} U.S. Tokens, Medals, p .198
Illustrated: Moran N39 {2008} Striking Change p  C18, 230
Illustrated: A49 {2009} Tolles. Saint-Gaudens Exhib . .p 47

1905-6 Cornish Masque Commemorative Plaquette (records
say cast, but looks struck; made by Tiffany & Co,
who may have, indeed, made dies and struck the 90
pieces required) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Baxter 79, Dryfhout 202
Auctions: Schulman (H.M.F.) unkown date
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . . . . 1961.137.3
Collection: Metropolitan Museum of Art . . . . . . . . .  08.216
Illustrated: A49 {2009} Tolles. Saint-Gaudens Exhib . .p 49

1906 Franklin (Benjamin) Bicentennial Medallion (designed
by Augustus, modeled by Louis Saint-Gaudens;
reductions and dies cut by Henri Weil, produced
by Tiffany). . . . . . . . .Baxter 81, Freeman 188, MAco 06-02
Greenslet GM-118 to GM-120, Fuld FR.M.UN.7
Auctions:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  BMP 2:5683; PCA 67:384
Collection: Metropolitan Museum of Art . . . . . . . . .06.1192
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . . . .381:298
Collection: Princeton Library Vermeule (NC000) . . . . . 164
Exhibited: Utah Museum of Fine Arts (1991) . . . . . . . . .164
Illustrated: Nat Scu Soc Exhibit Cat (4-25 Apr 1908) p . . 15
Illustrated: [Trees] Medallic Art in Commerce (1927) p . .14
Illustrated: P2 The Numismatist (December 1956) p . . 1386
Illustrated: TAMS Journal 6:1 (March-April 1966) p . . .  39
Illustrated: N39 {2008} Moran, Striking Change, color p .19
Illustrated: N39 {2008} Moran, Striking Change, p 245-246

     R  E  P  L  I  C  A  S    &    R  E  I  S  S  U  E  S 

1889 Washington Inauguration Centennial New York Medal
(struck white metal bronzed) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Douglas 54
Auctions:. . . . . . . . . .CAL 28:544; J&J 15:257, J&J 21:479,
J&J 27:953; PCA 58:250, PCA 59:1670, PCA 60:225

1889 Washington Inauguration Centennial New York Committee
Badge (Tiffany medal, 48). . . . . . . . . . . . .

1893 Columbian Exposition Medal (replicated and issued
by recipient, C. Emmerich & Co.) . . .. . .  Eglit 19, HK 223,
Rulau X1
Auctions:. . . . . . . . BMP 1:4148; CAL 28:211; J&J 8:1311,
PCA 45:1111-1112, PCA 55:122, PCA 52:1129-1130
Collection: American Numismatic Society. .  1935.999.308 

1896 Smithsonian Institution Hodgkins Medal (also called
the Hodgkins Committee of 1895 Medal; modeled by Jules
C. Chaplain, rev seal design by Augustus Saint-Gaudens)
[named for donor Thomas G. Hodgkins; competition for
design of medal won by Olin Warner, but unaccepted and
medal commissioned to Chaplain; medal replaced in
1965 by Hodgkins Medal by Manca (65-102)]. . . Baxter 12,
Mazerolle 50, Dryfhout 150
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . . .  1926.116.3 

1914 Maynard (George) Portrait Relief Plaque . . . . . . . . .

1914 Shaw Monument Court of Honor Medal (Saint-Gaudens’s
Shaw Monument appears on obv of header medal with
bell-shaped drop). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Storer 308

1962 Saint-Gaudens Coin Designer Medal (obv in imitation
of Saint-Gaudens’s Columbian Expo Medal; engraved
by Robert Schabel, struck by Metal Arts, Rochester NY,
issued by Toivo Johnson) . . . . . . . . .  Rulau XA4, Eglit 379
Auctions:. . . . . . . . .CAL 28:496; CAL 29:760; J&J 8:1132,
J&J 8:1622, J&J 25:1434, J&J 26:747; NAS 65:2278,
NAS 65:2280; NAS 72:450; PCA 46:1296-1297,
PCA 48:421, PCA 52:1504, PCA 53:1601, PCA 55:1676,
PCA 56:1784, PCA 58:1953, PCA 57:1866-1867,
PCA 59:1934, PCA 60:1596, PCA 61:1348, PCA 64:2046,
PCA 65:1854, PCA 67:928, PCA 71:1394-1395
Collection: American Numismatic Society [>1]  1981.101.1

E X O M E D A L L I C

1875-1876 Bryant Vase (designed by James Horton Whitehouse
(q.v.), cast in silver by Tiffany & Co, decorated with five
of six medallions by Augustus Saint-Gaudens) . . . ..Tolles 7
Collection: Metropolitan Museum of Art . . . . . . . . . . . .77.9
Illustrated: A49 {2009} Tolles. Saint-Gaudens Exhib . . p 11

S  C  U  L  P  T  U  R  E

1880 Children of Prescott Hall Butler Marble Relief. . Drythout 99,
Tolles 16
Collection: Metropolitan Museum of Art . . . . . . . . . 05.15.1
Illustrated: A49 {2009} Tolles. Saint-Gaudens Exhib . .p 53

1882 Saint-Gaudens (Homer Schiff) Marble Relief. Dryfhout 100-2
Illustrated: A49 {2009} Tolles. Saint-Gaudens Exhib . .p 18

1884 White (Bessie Smith) Marble Relief (Mrs. Stanford
White) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Tolles 21, Dryfhout 109-1
Collection: Meropolitan Musem of Art . . . . . . . . .1976.388
Illustrated: A49 {2009} Tolles. Saint-Gaudens Exhib . .p 27

1884-85 Children of Jacob Henry Schiff Marble
Relief . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dryfhout 119-2
Illustrated: A49 {2009} Tolles. Saint-Gaudens Exhib . .p 20

1888 Chase (William Merritt) Relief . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dryfhout 131
Illustrated: A49 {2009} Tolles. Saint-Gaudens Exhib . .p 29

1892-1903 Victory Statue  [model for 1907 $20 Gold
piece]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  Dryfhout 184-9
Illustrated: A49 {2009} Tolles. Saint-Gaudens Exhib . .p 41

1899 Lowell (Josephine Shaw) Marble Relief . . . . .  Dryfhout 172,
Tolles 43
Collection: Metropolitan Museum of Art .. . . . . . . . .  25.89

1905 Golden Bowl of the Masque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Illustrated: N39 {2008} Moran, Striking Change, page . 367

1905ca Head of Victory (same as model for Victory Relief, also
called Niki-Eiphnh Relief, see above). . . . . . . . . .
Illustrated: N39 {2008} Moran, Striking Change, page . 211

1905 Saint-Gaudens (Augusta) Portrait Relief (Augustus’s last
work, a portrait of his wife, cast by Gorham). . . . . . . . .
Illustrated: N39 {2008} Moran, Striking Change, color p 32

1908 Fete at Cornish Relief (cast by Gorham) [see struck plaquette
above, Baxter 79, Dryfhout 202] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1908 Magee Memorial Relief (cast by Gorham) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Portrait medals of Augustus Saint-Gaudens:

1898 Saint-Gaudens (Augustus) Cast Plaquette (modeled by
Helen F. Mears in 1898, plaquette carries 1916 copyright
date, cast by Gorham). . . . . . . . Baxter 214, ANS (IECM) 1
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . . . . .1923.55.1
Exhibited: Art Institute of Chicago AE2 (1916) no. . . . 780
Illustrated: MA1 {1988} Stahl, Medal In America, p . . 205

1901 Pan American Exposition Special Medal of
Honor [by James Earle Fraser] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Baxter 107
Collection: Metropolitan Museum of Art . . . . . .  09.114a,b
Illustrated: The Century Magazine 75 (1908) page  . . .  713
Illustrated: Vermeule A15 {1971} Numismatic Art p. . .127
Illustrated: MA1 {1988} Stahl, Medal In America, p . . 186
Illustrated: A49 {2009} Tolles. Saint-Gaudens Exhib . .p 77

1928 Saint-Gaudens Plaquette [by Warner
Williams] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  MAco 28-44

1937 Saint-Gaudens Plaquette [modeled by John
Flanagan in 1934, struck 1937]. . . . . . . . . . . . . . MAco 37-15

1969 New Hampshire Statehood Series Medal [by
Ralph J. Menconi] . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .MAco 62-2-32

1971 Saint-Gaudens Hall of Fame for Great Americans
Medal [by Stanley F. Martineau] . . . . . . . . . . . MAco 63-1-70

                                 A  R C  H   I  V  E  S

AAA Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, 9 items on partial microfilm reels D10,
3621.

GA Gorham Company Archives.

MACO [Trees (Clyde Curlee)] Medallic Art in Commerce, Civics, Philanthropy, Letters
and Science. New York: Medallic Art Company (1927) 39 pages.

                                  C  O  L  L  E  C  T  I  O  N  S

C4  {1912} Comparette 189, p 362; 279 377; 298 381; 372 391.

C8  {1965} Gardner 10.223, 12.76.4 p 46-48; 12.29 48; 12.76.1 50; 17.104 50-51;

              90.18.1, 06.1192, 08.216, 13.78, 24.20 56.

C12 {1977} Mayor and Davis 1–7, p 154.

C13 {1992} Freedman and Frank 320-326, p 154-156.

C14 {1996} Marqusee 346-349, p 68-69, (biography) 95.

                                       R  E  F  E  R  E  N  C  E  S

E3  {1902-30} Forrer 2:215-216; 5:298-301.

E4  {1903} Caffin. American Masters of Sculpture.

BL  {1906} A.L.A. Portrait Index, p 1280.

P1  {1907} American Journal of Numismatics 42: (1907) p 31.

P2  {1908} The Numismatist 20:9 (September 1908) p 266.

P2  {1909} Saxton (Burton H.)  St-Gaudens Biography. The Numismatist 22:6 (June 1909) p
161.

NE2 {1911} ANS (IECM) 25-27, p 335 (biography), illus 338; [Grimes p 118].

D5  {1915} Earle, p 275.

P2  {1920} Anon. Trial Pieces of St-Gaudens Eagles and Double Eagles. The Numismatist 33:8
(August 1920) p 348-349, illus.

M10 {1923} Storer (Massachusetts) 308 p 41, 1321 171, 1949 254.

D8  {1926} Fielding, p 314, 511-512

M12 {1927} Eidlitz 666.

A2  {1927} Fairman, p 327 (portrait), 359-360, passim.

M14 {1931} Storer (medical) 1375, p 213-214, 2452 342, 3367 455.

D12 {1937} College Art Association, p 161-171, 176, 177, 179-180.

M17 {1937} National Maritime W 3, p 268-269.

R6  {1950ca} Weil.  Unpublished manuscript. (Flanagan recommends Henri Weil reduce Saint-Gaudens’ model of Benjamin Franklin Medal.)

P2  {1943} Saxton (Burton H.)  Two Famous Americans: Augustus Saint-Gaudens and J. Edouard Roiné. The Numismatist 56:1 (January 1943) p 94-96.

B1  {1943} Who Was Who, p 1073.

BE  {1943} Webster’s Biographical Dictionary, p 1302.

S7  {1949} Douglas 53-54.

P2  {1956} Saxton (Burton H.)  Franklin Bicentennial Medallion.  The Numismatist 69:12
(December 1956) p 1386-1387, illus.

101 {1956} Walters 195.

N10 {1958} Adelson, passim.

D17 {1960} Wadia.

P2  {1961} Numismatic Experiment: Twenty-dollar Gold Piece Designed by St-Gaudens  Archaeology 14:4 (April 1961) p 216-217, illus.

S14 {1963} Eglit 19, p 24; 90 41; 330 79; 379 85.

M20 {1963} Hibler and Kappen 223, p 28.

M21 {1964} Freeman 188, p 93.

M25 {1965} U.S. Mint, p 260.

P4  {1966} Fuld (George J.)  New Franklin Medal by St-Gaudens TAMS Journal 6:2 (March-April 1966) p 39.

N16 {1967} Taxay, p 18, 19, 72.

A12 {1968} Craven, passim, (biblio) 746.

P2  {1968} Lannon (D.B.) A Living Coinage. The Numismatist 81:3 (March 1968) pp 283-300, illus.

A13 {1968} Proske, p 7-11, (biblio) 538.

K24c{1969} Smithsonian Institution.  Augustus Saint- Gaudens The Portrait Reliefs in The
National Portrait Gallery. Cited herein as “Reliefs.”

P6   {1969} Taxay (Don)  Saint-Gaudens and the United States Mint. Coins 16:11
(November 1969) pp 34-41, illus.

A14 {1970} Osborne, p 1032.

A15 {1971} Vermeule, passim.

C10 {1972} Norton (73), (75) p 31.

N21 {1974} Clain-Stefanelli, p 170, 242; illustrations 145, 171.

A18 {1974} Goode, p 45.

AEW {1976} Whitney Museum of Art (bio) p 306-307.

M39 {1981} Levine p 37-39, (biography) 103.

A26 {1982} Baigell, p 315-316.

K24a{1982} Dryfhout (John H.)  The Work of Augustus St- Gaudens. Hanover & London:
University Press of New England. 356 pp, illus. Major catalog. Coins: 204, p 280, 204A 280-81, 204B 281-82, 204C 283-287.  Reliefs passim. Cast medals: 86 106, 134 177-78, 168 232-33, 180 248-49, 197 271, 199 273, 205 288. Struck medals: 151 201-02, 202 276-77. Extensive bibliography.

A27 {1983} Evert, p 430-431.

E17 {1983} Pessolano-Filos, p 102.

N27 {1984} Jung, p 221.

BF1 {1985} Falk, p 538.

P8    {1985} Leotti (Elaine J.)  Augustus Saint-Gaudens Rejected by Senate Committee.  Medallic Sculpture 2 (Fall 1985) p 8.

S48  {1985} Rulau and Fuld (Douglas) 53, p 216-217.

D33  {1986} Opitz, p 805-806.

M42 {1987} Baxter 77, p 5; 73-81 28-31; 86-87 34; 201-203, 54; 107 38; 164 46.

O12 {1988} Breen 7094-7137,p 558-561; 7355-7419 572-578.

AE1 {1988} Falk, p 2:421.

S52  {1989} Rulau, Discovering America X3, X4, p 139.

AE2 {1990} Art Institute of Chicago, p 780.

AE5 {1990} National Academy of Design, p 456.

BW6{1990} Rubinstein, p 119, 123-141.

N31 {1992} Smith. American Numismatic Biographies, p 205-206.

A32 {1993} Reynolds, 187, passim.

A33 {1993} Salmon, p 21-24, (biblio) 285.

A44 {1996} Salmon, American Masters, p 53.

BANB{1999} American National Biography, p 19:198-201, by Lois Goldreich Marcus.

BF2 {1999} Falk. Who Was Who in American Art, p 3:2874-2875.

MA2 {1999} Stahl (Alan M., editor) The Medal in America: ∙ Thayer Tolles  “A Bit of Artistic Idealism: Augustus Saint-Gaudens’s World’s Columbian Exposition Commemorative Presentation Medal” pp 135-156.

P2  {2001} Kuhl (Jason F.)  The Portrayal of Native Americans on U.S. Coinage. The Numismatist 114:2 (February 2001) p 150-155.

N36 {2002} Bowers, More Adventures, p 275-286 (U.S. 1907 $20 gold Roman numeral date).

N37  {2005} Burdette. Renaissance of American Coinage, all 3 volumes passim.

D3a  {2006} Benezit.Dictionary of Artists, p 12:262.

M57 {2007} Jaeger (Katherine) and Bowers (Q. David)  100 Greatest American Medals and Tokens. 1905 Theodore Roosevelt Inaugural Medal, listed as #27, p 38; 1893 Columbian Exposition Award Medal listed as #79, p 90.

A49  {2009} Tolles (Thayer)  Augustus Saint-Gaudens in the Metropolitan Museum of Art: New York: Metropolitan Museum of Modern Art, and New Haven and London: Yale University (2009) 80 pages, illus [exhibition of 58 items].

M61 {2008} Jaeger (Katherine) Guide Book of United States Tokens and Medals, p 198.

N39  {2008} Moran (Michael F.)  Striking Change; The Great Artistic Collaboration of Theodore Roosevelt and Augustus Saint-Gaudens. [Major work on Saint-Gaudens in American coin and medal numismatics.]

N41 {2009} Reed (Fred). Abraham Lincoln, The Image of His Greatness, p 84, 154, 155- 157, 177, 181, 188, 192, 195-196, 198, 219, 224, 228.

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The term “exonumia” was coined in 1960 by numismatist Russ Rulau. He was seeking a term to cover all the items numismatists might collect that are not coins. At that time a new organizations was being established just for the collectors of these noncoin numismatic items.

At first, it was planned to include paper money, but this class of numismatic collectibles was quickly spun off; paper money collectors ultimately formed their own specialized organization. Everyone then recognized that paper money did not fit with what the organizers had in mind, the tokens and medals that were to be the prime interest of the new organization.

But should the new organization be called Tokens and Medals or Medals and Tokens?  Numismatist Eric Newman spoke up at the organizational meeting noting the inevitable use of initials for the organization’s name. He said: “TAMS are what you put on your head, MATS are what you step on.” So tokens took top billing.

Russ Rulau reasoned he wanted a single word to apply to this class of collectibles, and their adherents, even if he had to coin a new word. He chose exo- a prefix meaning from or outside of, and numia, meaning money or coins. The person, therefore, would be an exonumatist.

At the time I was editor of Coin World, where I took a slightly different view of exo- plus numia. To me it meant outside of numismatics. I said so in a Coin World editorial, criticizing the term.

Time has been kind to Russ’s coined word – it has been accepted by all numismatists and even included in Webster’s dictionary. He has had the last laugh over my original criticism (and he doesn’t let me forget it!).

But more to the point, in the intervening five decades, the Token And Medal Society has concentrated more on tokens than on medals. The pages of its journal – and the books it has published – have weighed far heavier on the token scale than on is companion medal side.

This was evident when, in 1998, a new organization was established for medal collectors alone, Medal Collectors of America. This was intended to fill the niche, the void, that the medal field was not adequately covered by a national specialized collectors’ organization.

Collectors of medals, particularly art medals, embraced the new organization and it has prospered. It now has its own monthly organ, MCA Advisory, still somewhat slim and devoid of advertising, but the content is strictly medal oriented. No tokens are to be seen.

This brings us to the point: Just what are the differences between the two similar collectibles? Mostly they are both struck from dies, but differ in their use and intent. Tokens have a value, expressed or implied, intended to serve a local area, in effect, a substitute for coins. Granted, some of their expressed value is in merchandise or services – good for a loaf of bread or some service. Collectors call these “good fors.”

Medals have no expressed value. They are not substitutes for coins – despite the fact they sometimes look like coins, made of the same compositions, and are often struck on the same presses. They serve a commemorative, historical, or award purpose. Or, they are medallic items of art.

In a previous post on September 6, 2010 – I explained this difference between art medals and token medals in an attempt to develop a definition of art medals. The difference is the press on which they are struck. Token medals are struck on a coining press, art medals require a far more sturdy press, often with greater pressure, and often require multiple strikes.

It is this later class of art medals I would like to single out, to separate from the class of single-struck tokens and token-like medals struck on coining presses. It can be stated, the field of medals is so large that it covers a broad spectrum. Also medals have been produced by every method possible. In addition to being die struck – on every type of press – to casting by every method of casting.

The adjacent chart lists the differences, but of more importance is the preparation of the dies. Token dies are often of simple design, sometimes of lettering alone. Medal dies are of more complex design, with devices and symbols, often with portraits, in addition to the required lettering, requiring far more artistic preparation.

Token dies require little planning and brief execution. A competent diesinker can make a token die in a few hour’s time. With simple equipment as letter punches, or more elaborate equipment, as tracer controlled pantographs, a diesinker can make even a pictorial die in a morning’s time.

By contrast, medal dies require more planning. It is not unusual for a medallic artist to mull over in his mind a proposed medal design for weeks, often while doing other work, before he attempts an initial sketch. At the sketch stage he may modify the design over and over until he views the outline of what he will render into glyphic form later.

One seasoned medallic sculptor, Carl Paul Jennewein, prepared over one hundred sketches for a proposed medal for the Museum of the City of New York centennial. Often the element of symbolism on a medallic item is of supreme importance. Not only must it be pictorial, it must be significant in its symbolic meaning, appropriate to the subject at hand.

The medallic artist has the luxury of unlimited examples he may try out before he accepts one he is most comfortable with. He modifies and polishes the images until he is satisfied. Then he renders the sketch into bas-relief form, either in clay, or more recently, on the computer.

Token makers employ none of this artistic effort. So the contrast between tokens and medals can be great. For this reason, the author proposes the field of art medals should be separated from the field of token interest. Since the field of tokens and all their related collectibles are so closely related to the term exonumia, the only path seems for art medals to go it alone, to distance the field from the exonumia field.

Therefore, I proposed the field of art medals be a separate field unto itself, and no longer be lumped in with all the items of exonumia. I do not propose that any collector limit what he collects, I could never presume to do that. Every collector chooses his own topic, collect both, collect all in that topic.

Please consider, however, art medals in a class above exonumia objects.  If that is considered elitist by others, so be it. Art medals are a class above token-medals.

Chart of Differences
Art Medals: Exonumia:
Type of medal Art Medal Token-Medal, or similar.
Typical creator Artist, sculptor Craftsman, diesinker
How made Struck, cast, other Single struck
Type of Press Medal press, Hydraulic, Knuckle-joint Coining press
Impressions Multiple struck Single struck
Relief Full range of relief, intaglio to high relief Very low relief only suitable for coining
Edge Full range of edge treatment, often lettered Reeded or smooth by type of collar used
Finish Full range of finishes, and patinas in color No finish, known as “coin finish”
Publication MCA Advisory TAMS Journal
Organization Medal Collectors of America Token And Medal Society
Prominent collector, author, spokesman Donald Scarinci Russ Rulau
Typical topic Society of Medallists So-Called Dollar
   Reason Highly artistic, created by top American sculptors. Size of silver dollar
Medallic forms Medals, medaletes,medallions, plaques, plaquettes, reliefs, medallic objects, multiple-part medals, mixed-media medals, decorations, charms. Merchants tokens, Civil War tokens, vending machine, parking meter and transportation tokens, game & casino chips,bullion coins / medals encased items, others.
Other topics, types U.S. Mint medals, Presidential Inaugural, Olympic medals, Commemorative medals, Historical medals, Portrait medals, Award medals, Anniversary medals, Prize medals, many others. Store cards, Bryan Money, Coal scrip, Lumber Co tokens, Billiard tokens, Sales Tax tokens, Elongated coins, Doubloons, Spinners & Flippers, Play money, many others.

Topical medal collecting.  The author has compiled a list of topics of all types of token and medal collecting. There are over 350 topics ranging from advertising and aviation to zodiac and zoology that numismatists collect. These cover both tokens and medals, although medals are far more diversified than tokens, with more actively collected topics.

However, it can be said, once a collector chooses his topic, he will collect all forms of numismatic items that fall within that topic. That is how compelling a chosen topic is to a collector.

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Bill Louth

Studio Photo of Bill Louth

William Trees Louth was president of Medallic Art Company. The middle name Trees was significant. It was his mother’s maiden name, and her brother, Clyde Curlee Trees, had a profound influence on the life of Bill Louth. Bill was to inherit the family business from Clyde Trees.

Bill Louth graduated high school near the end of World War II and immediately joined the U.S. Navy. He was placed in the V-12 program with intensive training at several colleges. He refused a lieutenant’s commission at the end of training so served the remainder of his two-year enlistment as a seaman.

Discharged from the Navy June 1946 he entered DePauw University, Greencastle, Indiana, near his home of Kokomo, Indiana. At DePauw he studied business, economics and music. At this time he also met his future wife, Ellen Mather, from Kansas City.

Bill’s life was about to change as Uncle Clyde was to extend his first influence on Bill’s life. He asked if Bill would come to work for him in New York City at Medallic Art Company.  No he didn’t ask, he demanded. Clyde had no son, only two daughters. He wanted a family member in the business that he had built through the tough times of the depression and World War II.

The business had turned successful just after the war with a tremendous demand for war service medals. Medallic Art Company was running three shifts around the clock producing Victory Medals, plus the many campaign medals required by the government for the military personnel who served in World War II. In all the firm was to produce more than four million military medals.

Fresh out of college, Bill showed up for work at the plant on New York’s 51st Street in mid-town Manhattan. It was among this frenzied activity Bill entered the business world. The need for workspace had long since outgrown the little shop on 51st Street with rented apartments nearby and a larger loft downtown where ladies worked sewing ribbons on medals and packaging them for shipment to the Quartermaster Corps in Philadelphia.

Clyde poured the profits from the military medals into New York City real estate. He had purchased two adjacent parcels on East 45th Street with the idea of locating the medal manufacturing plant there. It required extensive renovation. The two buildings had to be joined, make room for presses and other equipment on the first floor, and build offices on the second floor.

Bill was sent to this location. One of his first jobs was in the die vault. Steel shelving for heavy dies needed to be built. “Drill holes in the concrete for the bolts to hold the shelving” was his instructions from the foreman overseeing the construction.  Bill spent several weeks in that die vault, amid the rising dust and ear-splitting noise, but the shelves got built.

It took two years to complete the new location. Presses and equipment were moved from the old location to the new. All production was done on the first floor. Die engraving machines in a separate room. Blanking. Striking. Finishing. Electrolysis tanks. Annealing. Finishing, A tool-and-die department. A shop office. An inspection table. A shipping department. All on the first floor.

No family favoritism from Uncle Clyde — Bill got the toughest jobs, and the least praise. But he marshaled on, doing Clyde’s bidding no matter what, until he got to actually work at attracting new customers, building new business.

One of the first, Bill recalled in later years, was the National Collegiate Athletic Association. They were to make their trophies. Eliminate the towers of pot-metal athletic figures. Instead he worked with company artists to create a new form with relief galvanos mounted on walnut boards.

Bill’s contribution was the shape of the boards. An artist – in this case Robert Weinman – created a separate relief for each sport in about a six-inch size. This was surrounded by a wreath all made by the electrogalvanic process. When these were finished and relieved the brown galvanos looked stunning against the dark grain walnut stands.  This proved to be an early success for young Bill and a sustained business for as long as he was connected with Medallic Art.

Promotions did not come fast for Bill from Uncle Clyde. Twelve years after he came to work for him did Clyde grant Bill’s first promotion, to Advertising Director. This increased his sales responsibility.

Clyde had changed the method of getting new customers when he purchased the firm, in 1927, from the funders, Henri and Felix Weil. The Weils were originally sculptor’s assistants, and relied on sculptors to bring the medal business to them.

When Clyde got control, he wanted to sell the medal jobs, then commission the sculptors to prepare the models. He did this and he became a tenacious salesman. Once he learned some one or some firm wanted a medal, he took an active plan to capture that business. This was difficult to do in the early 1930s when the nation slumped into a depression.

He learned International Harvester was celebrating the centennial of Cyrus McCormick’s invention of the reaper. He didn’t let up until he captured the order. He tried to make a medal for International Harvester to give one to every farmer in America. That didn’t entirely happen. But he did strike three-quarters of a million medals in 1931, when his firm desperately needed work.

Clyde’s sales activity began by researching the founding date of a business firm or organization and contacting them prior to that time for an anniversary medal. Bill amplified such research and made it the chief duty of one salesman (Ernest Ackerman). Then they would divide up the leads among all salesmen to call on those leads.

Bill further developed new business by printing a brochure at least every fourth year. This became so established, they would set aside a fourth of the cost of that brochure’s mailing each year to sustain the cost of that expensive mailing. Bill endorsed these two methods throughout his tenure at the company.

Clyde Trees died October 2, 1960. He left the business to his nephew Bill, his widow Frances Trees, who had been in the business for fifteen years, and his oldest employee, Julius Lauth, who had been with the company since 1930. Bill was named president October 31, 1960.

Bill was now responsible for the company’s success. He assumed the part as chief salesman and accepted a territory along with a staff of three other salesmen.

Bill’s personality as a charmer now came into play. Firm, fair and charismatic, he more often than not got what he sought after, including many orders for medals. Business flourished under Bill’s control.

It was on one sales trip that I first met Bill Louth. In college I was elected president of the local coin club, the Missouri Numismatic Society.  From that I was named a director of the Central States Numismatic Society.

In my capacity as director, and unsatisfied with our existing map logo, I had asked Bill to redesign it with the thought of making it into a medal. He had the firm’s sketch artist create a design of a paddle wheel river boat – that was indeed symbolic of our territory. I loved it and presented this at the next Central States board meeting. The board wanted to keep the map logo and tabled the proposed design.

But Bill remembered that. Couple years later we were both in Kansas City at the same time. It was where my parents lived, and Bill’s wife’s parents lived. We met at a downtown hotel.

You can’t help but like Bill. Right from the time you first meet him. As I said he was a charmer. We hit it off together. Fast forward to 1966. Bill was asked to be the educational speaker at the national convention of the American Numismatic Association in Chicago. Bill asked if I would write the speech for him.

We discussed several themes and selected two – using the term “art medal” and the upcoming American Bicentennial in 1976. Bill gave the speech and both themes were endorsed. The numismatic field began using the term “art medal” on a regular basis. And the Bicentennial was a reason for a tremendous outpouring of fine art medals.

Months after that speech, Bill offered me a job at Medallic Art. Ernest Ackerman had died, the salesman that had done all that founding date research.

Bill asked if I could do that. Could I develop those sales leads?  Absolutely!

He also had a shopping list of chores he wanted me to do for the company. Could I build a company archive of all past medal issues? Could I issue press releases on new medals? Could I write more speeches for him? Could I be staff numismatist? Could I attend numismatic conventions and help sell medals?

Yes, yes and yes! This would be a fun job and I would be ideally suited for it. He offered me the job in November and I moved my family in December. I went to work first week in January. He set me up in Ernest Ackerman’s old office. I learned the founding date research right away.

In addition, I had to develop leads on organizations which would be prospects for issuing an American bicentennial medal. The first to do so was the Daughters of the American Revolution – bless them! – issuing a Bicentennial Medal in 1972.

Bill and I did travel to numismatic conventions together. Bill would meet with the general chairmen prior to these conventions and secure the order for the convention badges. I witnessed first hand how he pitched these people for the medal job. Later the decision was made by the organization’s national headquarters. Medallic Art had a string of eleven years in a row (1960-1971) in which it produced the convention medal, and related medals.

I enjoyed working with Bill Louth, he was like family.  He, and vice president Julius Lauth, taught me a great deal, about medals and medal manufacturing. I gained hands-on experience in this field. That knowledge meshed well with my numismatic knowledge, which I had gained as a collector since 1939. It was indeed a pleasure, being able to put that avocational interest to work in a vocational way.

In September 2006, long after we had both left Medallic Art, Bill wanted me to come visit him in Cape Cod. He was terminally ill, he wanted to give me one more writing assignment. “I want you to write my obit,” he said.

“Bill you ain’t dead yet,” I said, trying to make light of a very serious request. He insisted, and I complied. He died seven weeks later.

Attached below is a chronology of the life of William Louth. Charming man. I had the pleasure of knowing him and working with him.

Bill Louth Timeline
1926 (February 25) Born Kokomo, Indiana, to Lelah Maude (Trees) and Maurice E. Louth; attended schools in Kokomo.
1943 Seventeen-year-old Bill wins an oratorical contest sponsored by the Howard County Indiana American Legion.
1944 Bill Louth named an honor student to appear on the Chicago Tribune’s WGN radio program Citizens of Tomorrow broadcast in June that year, just prior to his war time graduation from Kokomo High School.
1944 (June 17) Immediately inducted into military service, sent to Purdue University for training in Navy V -12 program, transferred to Central College, Fayette, Missouri, again transferred to Notre Dame University, South Bend Indiana. He was at Notre Dame at time of Japanese surrender; he refused to accept a second lieutenant commission at that time so was transferred to the Great Lakes Naval Training Station. From there he was send to Camp Shoemaker, Livermore, California.
1946 (June 16) Discharged from Navy at Camp Shoemaker with rank Seaman Second Class.
1946 Entered DePauw University where he meets Ellen Bradley Mather of Kansas City. He is member of Beta Theta Pi and national honorary music fraternity Phi Mu Alpha.
1948 (June) Graduated DePauw University with a BA degree in economics.
1948 (July) Offered position as salesman by his uncle, Clyde Curlee Trees, and went to work for Medallic Art Company, New York City.
1948 (October 30) Married Ellen Mather in Kansas City; couple lives in New York City.
1949 Ellen Louth takes active part in the corres- pondence of the Society of Medallists, a series of fine art medals made by the firm.
1952 (April 14) Son born to couple, Bradley Emerson Louth, in New York City.
1954 Bill and Ellen Louth move from Stuyvesant Town, NYC, to nearby Pelham, New York.
1956 (February 17) Second son born to couple, Thomas Mather Louth, in New York City.
1956 Bill promoted to Advertising Director with increased sales responsibility.
1958 Bill Louth named president of the Sons of Indiana Society of New York.
1959 Clyde Trees promotes Bill to Vice President and Director of Medallic Art Co, in his plan for ultimate transfer of company ownership to his nephew, widow, and oldest employee.
1960 (October 2) Clyde Curlee Trees died.
1960 (October 21) William Trees Louth named President and Director as one of three owners of Medallic Art Company, including Frances K. Trees, Vice President-Treasurer, & Julius Lauth, Vice President-Art Director, fulfilling Clyde Trees intended plan.
1960 (November) Bill Louth becomes a member of American Numismatic Association, ANA assigned membership number 40561.
1961 Louth joins National Sculpture Society as patron member; he follows interests of his uncle Clyde Trees who was a officer (treasurer) of the sculpture organization.
1962 Louth joins Token And Medal Society.
1963 Creates Hall of Fame series of medals in a consortium of Coin and Currency Inc, as distributor, National Sculpture Society, which furnishes artists to create designs and models, and the New York University where the Hall of Fame is located.
1964 Bas-relief portrait of Louth created by Chief Engraver of the U.S. Mint, Gilroy Roberts; prepared as a galvano and diestruck medal (MAc. 1964-152).
1965 (Fall) Bill Louth co-developer of entirely new medallic art form. At urging of Art in America magazine, museum curator Edward Bryant (representing modern art field) and Louth (representing medallic art produc- tion), i. 1965 initiates a series of seven creations, the first ever medallic objects. The seven works of art by modern artists, issued in galvano form, twelve to fifteen inches in size; two were selected to be diestruck medals, the same two issued as jewelry pins in gold, all forms produced by Medallic Art Co. The modern artists included: Chryssa, Roy Gussow, Constantino Nivola, Harold Tovish, Ernest Trova, Elbert Weinberg, and James Wines. Published in Art in America, December-January. 1965-66) p 38-44, 136.
1966 (April) President Lyndon Johnson named William Louth to the United States Assay Commission, America’s oldest oversight group, it checks on the quality of United States coins struck by the country’s mints.
1966 (August) Bill Louth named educational speaker at the convention of the American Numismatic Association in Chicago; in this speech he asked for the return of term “art medal” for those medallic items which met certain standards, Originally invented i. 1914, the term had fallen into disuse, but the field responded and used it ever since. He also implored for the high quality of medals to be issued for the American Bicentennial, ten years hence.
1966 (August) Louth named to Old Time Assay Commissioner Society, a group of former commissioners, for his service that year; he donates their annual meeting medal he personally designed the first three issues.
1967 (December) Coinage magazine publishes “Home of the Art Medal: A Tour Through Medallic Art Company;” shows Bill Louth in his office and all departments; text by Dick Johnson, who Louth had write tha.
1966 ANA speech, and hired January, 1967.
1968 (May 6) Named Hoosier of the Year by the Sons of Indiana.
1969 (August) Louth invents a lady’s convention medal (of lighter weight and smaller size) introducing this medal not only in badge form for the Philadelphia convention of American Numismatic Assn this year, but also a four-medal set for medal collectors.
1969 (August) Named Chief Coiner [president] of Old Time Assay Commissioner Society for a two-year term.
1969 (September) Appoints Eva Adams, former Director of U.S. Mint, a director of Medallic Art Co on her resignation from the Mint; she resigns year later to run for ANA office.
1970 (February 4) Ronald Reagan, as governor of California, visits the plant of Medallic Art Company while the firm is manufacturing the California Bicentennial Medal (MAc. 1969-168); photo with Bill and the medal.
1970 (May) Bill Louth honored by a two-page biographical article in The Rotarian maga- zine with his portrait amid colorful medals.
1970 (May 7) Bill Louth at White House with sculptor Ralph J. Menconi to present gold Inaugural medal to President Richard M. Nixon; first of 3 such medal presentations.
1971 (October 31) Ground Breaking Ceremony for new Medallic Art plant on 22-acre tract company had purchase in western Danbury, attended by Connecticut and local officials.
1972 (January) Louth sells the company to a group of investors headed by Donald A. Schwartz; he stays on as president.
1972 (June 2) Medallic Art moves into new plant specially designed for manufacturing fine art medals located in Danbury, Connecticut.
1973 (June) Dedication of Danbury plant with municipal dignitaries attending; Louth master of ceremonies; Dedication Medal by Frank Eliscu issued (MAc. 1973-01).
1974 (July) Article in The Numismatist, page 1341.
1974 (Fall) Louth at White House with sculptor Frank Eliscu to present gold Inaugural medal to President Gerald R. Ford.
1976 (month) Louth resigns as president of Medallic Art Company, forms Trinity Consulting for real estate investments.
1989 (November 18) Ellen Mather Trees Louth (born January 14. 1927) dies in New Haven, Connecticut.
1992 (January 4) Bill Louth marries a second time to Marion Jeannette Atkins at the United Methodist Church in Westport, Connecticu.
1997 (August 5) Bill and Jeannette Louth relocate from Guilford, Connecticut, to West Harwich, Massachusetts, on Cape Cod.
2003 (September 26) Bill Louth meets with Donald Scarinci, Dick and Shirley Johnson for a long interview for the purpose of providing information on the Society of Medalists for a book Scarinci plans to write.
2006 (September 14) Louth insists Dick Johnson visits him in Cape Code to gather his biographic details and write a draft for his ultimate obituary.
2006 (November 17) William Trees Louth dies; obituary by D. Wayne Johnson appears in numismatic publications and local press.
2006 (December 2) Memorial service held in Cape Cod at Brewster Baptist Church, Brewster, Massachusetts. R

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