Feeds:
Posts
Comments

Archive for March, 2011

Part 2 – Matthew Boulton

Matthew Boulton Portrait

Matthew Boulton Portrait

IF I HAD to choose one person who made the greatest contribution to coin and medal manufacturing – including coin and medal die creation – it would be English manufacturer, engineer and entrepreneur Matthew Boulton (1728-1809) . One of the greatest participants of the Industrial Revolution, he could be called “Master of Modern Minting,” and also “The Father of the Private Mint.”

He did more to develop coin and medal making technology than any other person in history. His activities in this field influenced every mint in existence, and every step in the production of coin and medal creation. He obtained his first coinage contract in 1786, established his own mint, the Soho Mint in 1789 and by 1791 had earned the reputation of being the most technically advanced mint in the world!

Boulton’s father owned a small metal products factory in Birmingham, which Matthew managed for ten years until his father died and he inherited at age 31. He expanded his product line from buttons, buckles, and toys to Sheffield and sterling silver plate, determined to become a great silversmith. But silver objects were not that profitable.

Matthew had lent money to Dr. John Roebuck in partnership with James Watt, inventor of the first successful steam engine. In payment of this debt, Boulton accepted part ownership of the steam engine patent. The steam engine needed improvement. Boulton convinced Watt to move to Birmingham, and together they would develop and market the steam engine commercially. This they did.

By 1775, six of Watt’s 14-year patent protection years had elapsed. Boulton lobbied Parliament for an extension of Watt’s patent to 1800. This proved prophetic for the coin and medal world. As Watt made improvements, Boulton sold the engines to a wide circle of users, more than 400 in the first decade. Boulton also made use of Watt’s machine in his own factories, particularly in the metal stamping of the small metal parts it had been manufacturing for decades.

Boulton also cast about for other means of using the power of the steam engine in contrast to the water power customarily employed in the small factories in and nearby Birmingham. One of those ideas was the striking of coins, which he embraced in the mid 1780s.

In Britain for the decades since the 1750s there was a shortage of minor coins to make change. So many fake and counterfeit coins were in circulation that the Royal Mint struck no copper coins from 1773 to 1821, making the matter even worse.

Merchants, in dire need to make change for their commerce, turned to having their own tokens made. These were supplied by an active cottage industry of die sinkers who cut dies and made tokens in a size similar to the halfpenny. Most of these diesinkers were located in the metalworking area around Birmingham. “Birmingham coiners” were somewhat of a term for false coin. Boulton, of course, was aware of this situation, but would have no part of striking false coins.

Boulton’s plan was to petition the British government to strike the national coins in copper to displace the circulating fakes and eliminate the need for merchant’s tokens. He obtained his first coinage contract in 1786 and within two years, when he established his Soho Mint, he had eight presses operating on coinage alone.

Boulton was successful then, as has come to be a universal rule in all business – get the most modern equipment and hire the most talented workmen. This he did in buying screw presses, then improving these until he had the capability of building his own as coining presses.

He had used local die engravers, but in 1789 he sought out the best engraver in the world at the time, he wanted the most accomplished engraver. He turned first to the Paris Mint and hired away Jean-Pierre Droz (1746-1823), a Swiss-born engraver of great talent for die engraving, but also of rare mechanical aptitude.

Droz had invented the first split collar (virole brisée) in 1783 for edge lettering and submits this to Paris Mint. At the Paris mint, Droz and mechanic there, Philippe Gengembre, devised a way to feed the blanks and remove the struck pieces while the press was still manually operated. Boulton hired Droz from the Paris Mint in 1789 to prepare dies, improve his equipment and increase production at the Soho Mint (thus Droz becoming the first factory artist).

At the Soho Mint, Droz not only engraved dies but advanced the technology around the steam-powered presses. There he developed and made full use of automatic feed and delivery systems while the presses were in operation. He engraved coin and medal patterns while improving Soho methods of coining.

An interesting historical note, Thomas Jefferson learned of Droz talents and offered Droz the opportunity to establish a new mint in America. He is offered the position of its first director, but Droz declined.

Still at the Soho Mint, Droz used Barton’s metal to strike the first medal in clad metal (made from silver strips rolled on a copper core), the George III Recovery Medal, 1789 (Brown 311). An assistant, M. Druet, was hired for Droz in 1790. His coin dies for the 1797 Bermuda penny were struck in quantity at Soho.

But somewhat unhappy in his position at Soho Mint and his relationship with Boulton, Droz returned to France (1799) to become General Administrator of the coins and medals, keeper of the mint museum, and consultant to mints of the world for coining and mint equipment.

To replace Droz, in 1793 Boulton hired German engraver Conrad Heinrich Kuchler (died 1810). Küchler was not as inventive as Droz, but aided Boulton in accomplishing the mechanization of coining. Küchler engraved the dies for the British cartwheel coinage and 34 medals while employed at the Soho Mint.

In 1790, Boulton learned of the die-engraving machine of Jean Baptiste Bartlemey Dupeyrat (1759-1834) and obtained one for his Soho Mint. It was utilized there to do what it did in other mints – reducing the main device from an oversize metal pattern, then employed hand engravers to add lettering and small symbols by hand punches.

Boulton is noted for expressing the wish in 1797, “I look to the time when it can cut the entire side of a coin or medal, not just the device.” This was not to happen until Victor Janvier invented his die engraver in 1899.

Soho Mint technicians continuously attempted to improve the Dupeyrat machine. When James Watt retired in 1819 from the Soho Mint, he took one of these machines to tinker with in his garret, attempting to improve upon it in his declining years.

In 1805, Boulton helped rebuild London’s Tower Mint, constructing all coining machinery and installing steam power. So efficient were his coining presses constructed at this time that they lasted seven decades – until 1882! – long outlasting the great innovator in the coin and medal field who died in 1809.

Matthew Boulton and the Imperial Bank Mint in St Petersburg photo courtesy Powerhouse Museum

Matthew Boulton designed the Imperial Bank Mint in St Petersburg

Boulton made tremendous improvements in diemaking, hubbing, blanking, coining, and striking at his Soho Mint in Birmingham including:

  • His employment of Jean-Pierre Droz from the Paris Mint was an inspired step for many reasons: Droz prepared dies, improved equipment, and created new coining methods and processes at Soho Mint. He inspired Boulton and Watt as what could be done at a private mint. Droz became, in effect, the first factory artist in the coin and medal field.
  • Boulton and Watt devised a way to apply their steam-powered engines to run screw presses, then available; also to make full use of automatic feed and delivery systems developed and brought to the Soho Mint by Droz.
  • At the Soho Mint, Boulton developed the first edge thickening of blanks which he called “rimming” (elsewhere, including in the U.S., called upsetting). The treated blanks have a uniform roundness and a formed rim that aids coining; striking coins in coining presses could not be accomplished without this preparatory step in blank preparation.
  • The Soho mint supplied blanks to mints throughout the world, including more than 20 million to the infant mint in the United States at Philadelphia.
  • First to use clad strip, Barton’s metal, for a coin blank (in 1789) in cooperation with Droz.
  • He built and sold coining equipment to mints of the world, often building complete plants, including Spain, Denmark and Russia.
  • First edge lettering with raised lettering on a medal, struck at Soho Mint in Birmingham. He gave to each of the officers engaged in the Battle of Trafalgar a medal which bore a portrait of Lord Nelson. Around the medal was the edge lettering: TO THE HEROES OF TRAFALGAR FROM M BOULTON. This was accomplished by the segmented collar (virole brisée) developed by Droz.

Resources

A biographical book, Matthew Boulton, by H.W. Dickinson was published in 1937 by Cambridge University Press. But the most scholarly book on Boulton and the Soho Mint by Richard G. Doty was published in 1998 by the Smithsonian Institution, Spink and British Numismatic Society.

Advertisements

Read Full Post »

Part 1 – Historical Background

BEFORE any coin or medal can be struck, two dies are required (even if the piece is uniface and the back side is blank). The image to be struck in metal must first be cut into steel. The image is in relief; if the image is pictorial this must be in modulated relief. To obtain a positive image in the struck piece, a negative image must be in the die.

Lydian Lion Gold Coin

Lydian Lion Gold Coin

These basic concepts of creating a struck image were understood by ancient man as the first struck coins were made, by the Lydians in 640 bc. Ancient man had an understanding, a comprehension, of iron (for dies), of engraving (a hard iron tool cutting into soft iron), of heat treating (hardening and softening iron at will), of striking (from a hammer blow), of precious metals – gold and silver – and the use of bronze (the later since the Bronze Age, 4000 years previous). Amazingly, these concepts have not changed in 2600 years since! They are basic tenets, the basic physics – the laws of nature and technology – applied to die striking.

Die making technology developed early and rapidly. Punches were first used when lettering first appeared on coins (again Lydia, 580 bc). Hubbing was employed for transferring the design from one iron block to another (in Italy, 530 bc). High relief images could be employed without breaking the dies in striking with the improvement of heat treating and hardening the dies (Greece, 480 bc).

Art intersects with technology when the aesthetics of the image are rendered by the engraver in the finished coin die. Over the next 950 years (until the Fall of Rome, 476 ad) Greek and Roman coin engravers developed the artistic images of struck pieces. The coins of this period are some of the most beautiful glyptic images ever created!

In the beginning of the Middle Age, engravers discarded their burins (the tool for cutting modulated relief into dies). Instead they used only punches, creating designs – dots and dashes and arcs – to punch a design into the die, even the monarch’s head was created with punches only. Such crude, cartoon-like die designs prevented any beauty from a modulated relief to exist. Yet these are the only portrait images we have of many of these rulers, a testament to the fact of the longevity of these glyptic objects.

Gradually, in a century of slow development, the burin returned to the hands of later, new engravers. Dies were again hand engraved creating relief images, but nowhere near the artistic expression of the ancient coins. Technology also improved for using those dies.

Leonardo da Vinci Self Portrait

Leonardo da Vinci Self Portrait

Famed Florentine artist Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) envisioned coining dies, blanking and striking presses and recorded the earliest theory of blanking and coining presses in his notebooks. No documentation exists of da Vinci actually making or using these innovations. However, he created some highly thoughtful solutions to coin technology problems. Later a model of his blanking press was built from his drawings (financed by IBM in the 1950s) and is now on view at the Smithsonian Institution. It shows two blanking heads back-to-back that could accomplish dual blanking on the same strip.

The screw press was developed for striking coins, beginning in Italy in 1506 by Donato Bramante (1444-1514), later in Germany by machinist and engineer Max Schwab (active 1550) who developed and built drawing and rolling presses for making thin strips, and better screw presses for blanking those strips into planchets, and, using the same press, for striking those blanks into desired pieces.

The collar and ejection system was developed by an Italian engineer, Francesco Comelli, in 1786. The three-dimensional die engraving pantograph was developed in several countries at about the same time. A Belgian (last name Hulot, first name unknown, in 1766) was perhaps the first. And a German, Diedrich Uhlhorm (1767-1834) in 1819 invents the knuckle-joint press for striking which was a giant improvement over the screw press.

With these developments in the industrialized world for manufacturing the struck pieces, die making was likewise modernized. The world owes the greatest debt of gratitude, however, to one man – Matthew Boulton – for this modernization of coin and medal making. He built a mint, the Soho in Birmingham England, where he brought the most talented craftsmen and equipment together in one place for the sole purpose of minting coins and striking medals.

Boulton and his partner, James Watt, inventor of the steam engine, applied their creative use of steam power to the coining press providing great power – and ultimately at greater speed – for striking coins and medals. They applied industrial revolution concepts to producing these objects. Their contributions to the field should never be forgotten in the annals of numismatics and medallic art.

Casting medals first occurred in 1439 when Pisanello (Antonio Pisano,1397?-1455?,  Italian sculptor, painter) prepared a cast medal of Paleologos. This caught on among European royalty who had portraits of their family members made for distribution to other royalty, much like we send out family photographs today. Cast medals are usually made in the workshops of the artists, but can also be made by professional casters.

The casting of objects similar to medals from Roman times is the same technology, but of less interest to numismatists (they just do not fit the definition of a coin or medal). This art form did not extend beyond central Europe at first. But both casting and striking technology was adapted by European goldsmiths who created jewelry, often similar to coins and medals. These goldsmiths improved somewhat on the casting methods used by Renaissance medalists, in addition to the die making, blanking, striking, trimming techniques adapted from methods employed by coin makers.

The Germans embraced the craft of hand engraving for more than four centuries. They also developed the machinery for striking, as Uhlhorn’s striking press. It was the French practitioners, however, who experimented with modeling oversize models and patterns to be pantographically reduced in three dimensions to the size die required. Also the French applied artistic patinas to their cast or struck medals.

As the Germans retained their interest in hand engraving their dies and the French achieved more realistic images, particularly in medallic portraits with oversize models, it was the Italians who raised glyptic art to its greatest beauty. Undoubtedly influenced by their ancient predecessors, Italian artists created coins and medals of great beauty.

Matthew Boulton and the Imperial Bank Mint in St Petersburg photo courtesy Powerhouse Museum

Matthew Boulton designed the Imperial Bank Mint in St Petersburg

We can credit the British for creating the private mint at the forefront of the Industrial Revolution. Matthew Boulton brought all these forces together for the benefit of mints and medal makers throughout the world. Creating these small glyptic objects became an industry where large quantities could be crafted from artists’ models.

What was left for the Americans to invent in this field? Americans became the catalogers of numismatics. Americans authored the articles, created the literature, published the books. Americans wrote about these items, in addition, perhaps, to leading the world in collecting coins and medals.

Americans, in their increasing curiosity strove to learn more about these objects – in every aspect of creating and collecting – ultimately to record this information on the printed page. Americans invented the coin catalog with the tabular listing of coins by varieties and condition and prices to aid the collector if not the connoisseur. Americans popularized numismatics.

This American numismatic collecting popularity gave rise to the U.S. Mint issuing commemorative coins for collectors and the public, often for raising funds for a notable institution. Also, American medalists created The Society of Medallists for medal collectors and glyptic art enthusiasts for these miniature bas-reliefs.

With this overview of the technology and its national developments we can look to the development of die engraving from those earliest coins in Lydia to present day coins and medals.  What we will learn is that hand engraving dominated all the centuries up to the 19th century and the hand engraver created all coin and medal dies. Beginning in 1900, the die-engraving pantograph dominated coin and medal die creation with sculptors producing oversize models as their creators.

The present 21st century will be the century of computer-generated die creation. It will be the artist-technician who will create three-dimensional images on the computer which will, in turn, control the cutting of dies for striking coins and medals. It will be interesting to trace these developments and learn of the people involved who accomplished these achievements and have brought us coins and medals over the years.

Read Full Post »

Frank Hagel

Frank Hagel

MY ARTIST DATABANK indicated Frank Hagel was dead. I was surprised when Rob Vugteveen informed me that Frank Hagel was on the Internet with a current web site. I eagerly volunteered to contact the artist for several reasons, not the least of which to update and correct my artist databank, but also to fill in information that was missing because of a lack of files from the past.

I dialed the number on his web site and he answered the phone himself. Identifying who I was and the purpose of the call, which led to an engaging conversation that quickly warmed as it progressed. The artist revealed a self-confident assurance of a senior professional long accustomed to his place in the world and his position in his chosen field. He relayed facts in an easy-going way, void of any padding or hyperbole.

Here is what I learned:

  • Frank Hagel is indeed very much alive and well, living in Kalispell, the Montana town of his birth, and where he has lived for the past forty years.
  • He was indeed the sculptor of those early National Parks medals and did forty of them in 1972 and 1973, plus two in later years.
  • He (obviously) was not the Frank Hagel listed in the Social Security Death Index as having died in 1985.
  • He remembered Bill Louth, the president of Medallic Art Company at the time, as he had made two trips to New York City and visited with Bill at the plant on East 45th Street.
  • He did remember a salesman of the firm had visited him in Kalispell, but he did not remember the name until I mentioned Bob Southerland.
  • He is a painter more than a sculptor, with nine of his paintings – all of a Western American theme – on his web site, “with ten more to go on.”
  • He did design and model some medals struck by another firm, not Medallic Art.
  • He spent his entire life in Kalispell, except for his education and his first job as a commercial artist in Detroit from 1959 to 1971.
  • He was aware some Monument medals had been added to the National Park Series, and he had done several of these.

I had asked about the models of the National Park Medal Series he had created. He was aware he had omitted the lettering. That was for Medallic Art Company to add to his models. He knew someone had to do this. He was unaware it was sculptor Joseph Di Lorenzo until this fact came out in our conversation.

He also cleared up a question about the Yellowstone Medal that preceded the National Park Series. In 1970, he designed a Yellowstone George Catlin Medal. Medallic Art commissioned California artist Boris Buzan to model Hagel’s designs.

But Buzan’s models were rejected, so Frank Hagel assumed the task of modeling them himself, his first attempt at bas-relief creations. These were accepted by the members of the newly created firm, Roche Jaune (French for “Yellow Stone”).

George Catlin Yellowstone Medal

George Catlin Yellowstone Medal

This led to his becoming the sculptor member of the Roche Jaune venture team. He not only created the design, he modeled these designs as well!

The National Park Medal Series

As I remember, the National Park Foundation of the U.S. Department of Interior was involved with Roche Jaune and Medallic Art in their endorsement of the National Park Series. It had given their tacit approval of the series early in the promotion of the series.

Up to 1984 there were indeed only forty medals in the series – all by Frank Hagel. I sold a set of these in one of my auction sales (23 September 1989).

Since that time, and under the Medallic Art management of both Don Schwartz and Bob Hoff, additional medals were added to this original forty. For the most part, these additions were for monuments, creating an intermixing of the National Parks with National Monuments in the series.

The number system may appear chaotic, but it reflects the addition of parks and monuments after the original series had been established. Here is a complete list as best as I can determine at this time.

National Park or Monument MACo Archive Number Artist
1 Acadia, NE 1972-008-005 Frank Hagel
2 Arches, UT 1972-008-035 Frank Hagel
3 Arlington Cemetery, DC 2001-215 ?
4 Badlands, SD 1991-119 Tanya Mack
5 Big Bend, TX 1972-008-031 Frank Hagel
6 Bryce Canyon, UT 1972-008-035 Frank Hagel
7 Cabrillo, CA 1973-018 Frank Hagel
8 Canyonlands, UT 1972-008-033 Frank Hagel
9 Capitol (U.S.), DC 1999-104 Frank Hagel
10 Capitol Reef, UT 1972-008-037 Frank Hagel
11 Carlsbad Caverns, NM 1972-008-021 Frank Hagel
12 Crater Lake, OR 1972-008-023 Frank Hagel
13 Death Valley, CA 2005-126 ?
14 Denali, AK 1984-188 Frank Hagel
15 Devil’s Tower, WY 2000-057 Doug Birdwell
16 Dinosaur, CO, UT 2000-159 Don Everhart
17 Everglades, FL 1972-008-023 Frank Hagel
18 Fort Clatsop, OR 1981-090 S. Winlass
19 Gettysburg, PA 1995-125 Tanya Mack
20 Gila Cliff Dwellings, NM 2000-099 ?
21 Glacier, MT 1972-008-002 Frank Hagel
22 Golden Gate, CA 1990-085 ?
23 Grand Canyon, AZ ? ?
24 Grand Teton, WY 1972-008-004 Frank Hagel
25 Great Smoky Mountains, NC, TN 1972-008-006 Frank Hagel
26 Guadalupe Mountains, TX 1972-008-034 Frank Hagel
27 Haleakala, HI 1972-08-018 Frank Hagel
28 Hawaii Volcanoes , HI 1972-008-010 Frank Hagel
29 Hot Springs, AR 1972-008-137 Frank Hagel
30 Isle Royale, MI 1972-008-035 Frank Hagel
31 Iwo Jima, DC 2000-161 ?
32 Jefferson Memorial, DC 1996-130 Jurek Jakowicz
33 Kings Canyon, CA 1972-008-017 Frank Hagel
34 Lassen Volcanic, CA 1972-008-025 Frank Hagel
35 Lincoln Memorial, DC 1996-146 Jurek Jakowicz
36 Mount Reiner, WA 1972-008-008 Frank Hagel
37 Mammoth Cave, KY 1972-008-01 Frank Hagel
38 Mount Rushmore 1973-097 Frank Hagel,Joseph DiLorenzo
39 Mesa Verde, CO 1972-008-022 Frank Hagel
40 Niagara Falls, NY 2000-102 Doug Birdwell
41 North Cascades, WA 1972-008-027 Frank Hagel
42 Olympia, WA 1972-008-011 Frank Hagel
43 Petrified Forest, AZ 1972-008-016 Frank Hagel
44 Platt, OK 1972-008-015 Frank Hagel
45 Redwood, CA 1972-008-030 Frank Hagel
46 Rocky Mountains, CO 1972-008-009 Frank Hagel
47 Saguaro, AZ 2000-053 Doug Birdwell
48 Sequoia, CA 1972-008-019 Frank Hagel
49 Shenandoah, VA 1972-008-012 Frank Hagel
50 Statue of Liberty, NY ? ?
51 U.S.S. Arizona, HI 2000-100 Doug Birdwell
52 Vietnam Memorial, DC ? ?
53 Virgin Islands, VI 1972-008-037 Frank Hagel
54 Voyageurs, MN 1972-008-024 Frank Hagel
55 Washington Monument, DC 1994-124 Miko Kaufman
56 White House, DC 1999-193 ?
57 Wind Cave, SD 1972-008-018 Frank Hagel
58-60 Yellowstone-Catlin 1970-159-02 Frank Hagel
61 Yosemite, CA 1972-008-001 Frank Hagel
62 Zion, UT 1972-008-020 Frank Hagel

The entry on Frank Hagel from Dick Johnson’s Databank

HAGEL, Frank (1933-) painter, sculptor.
Born Kalispell, Montana, 20 December 1933.
Received art education prior to 1959.
Commercial artist, Detroit: 1959-1970.
Returned to Kalispell in 1970.
Sculptor member of firm, Roche Jaune (“yellow stone”), 
which issued medal series for all U.S. National Parks.

MEDAL SERIES

Roche Jaune Series
1970 Yellowstone National Park Centennial Medal [designed by Hagen;
modeled by Boris Buzan, but model rejected] MACo 1970-146
1970 Yellowstone/George Catlin Medal 
[designed and modeled by Hagel] MACo 1970-159-001
1970 Yellowstone/George Catlin Medal 
[designed and modeled by Hagel] MACo 1970-159-002
Auctions: J&J 8:1207, J&J 16:1109

National Parks Centennial Series
(the Keystone Medal and all in the series 
were designed and modeled by Frank Hagel 
with lettering by Joseph Di Lorenzo, 
marketed by Roche Jaune):
1972 National Parks Centennial Keystone Medal 
[large 2 ½-inch size] MACo 1972-007
1972 National Parks Centennial Keystone Medal 
[small 1 ½-inch size, as all others in series] MACo 1972-012
Auctions: CAL 35:130; J&J 8:1212
1972 Yosemite National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-001
Auctions: J&J 8:1153
1972 Glacier National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-002
1972 Everglades National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-003
Auctions: J&J 8:1154
1972 Grand Teton National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-004
Auctions: J&J 8:1155
1972 Acadia National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-005
Auctions: J&J 8:1156
1972 Great Smoky Mountains National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-006
Auctions: J&J 8:1157
1972 Grand Canyon National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-007
1972 Mount Rainier National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-008
1972 Rocky Mountain National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-009
1972 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-010
1972 Olympic National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-011
1972 Shenandoah National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-012
1972 Hot Springs National Park Medal 
[error in date of founding 1927] MACo 1972-008-013
1972 Hot Springs National Park Medal [corrected] MACo 1972-008-013A
1972 Mammoth Cave National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-014
1972 Platt National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-015
1972 Petrified Forest National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-016
1972 Kings Canyon National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-017
1972 Wind Cave National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-018
1972 Sequoia National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-019
1972 Zion National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-020
1972 Carlsbad Caverns National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-021
1972 Mesa Verde National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-022
1972 Crater Lake National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-023
1972 Voyageurs National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-024
1972 Lassen Volcanic National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-025
1972 Bryce Canyon National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-026
1972 North Cascades National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-027
1972 Haleakala National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-028
1972 Virgin Islands National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-029
1972 Redwood National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-030
1972 Big Bend National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-031
1972 Mount McKinley National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-032
1972 Canyonlands National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-033
1972 Guadalupe Mountains National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-034
1972 Isle Royal National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-035
1972 Arches National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-036
1972 Capitol Region National Park Medal MACo 1972-008-037
1973 Cabrillo Historical Site Medal MACo 1973-018
1973 Mount Rushmore National Park Medal MACo 1973-097
1982 Zion National Park 75th Anniversary Medal MACo 1982-293
1984 Denali National Park Medal MACo 1984-188
Groups of fewer than 40 medals:
Auctions: J&J 8:1152; PCA 43:1293
Complete Set of 40 medals:
Auctions: CAL 33:2279

Montana Bicentennial Series
1974 Lewis & Clark Medal MACo 1974-084-001
1974 Fur Trade Medal MACo 1974-084-002
1974 The Cattlemen Medal MACo 1974-084-003
1975 Only the Land Endures Medal MACo 1974-084-004
Auctions: J&J 7:52-53

MEDALS
1989 Montana Statehood Centennial Medal

Read Full Post »