Archive for July, 2010

When Medallic Art Company was just Henri and Felix Weil working together in their lower Manhattan workshop they were, in effect, a service industry to the sculptors who had created medals. They had been “sculptor assistants” since at least 1892, had worked for some prominent New York City sculptors, and even had a sculptor in the family, married to an older sister.

If they had a policy at the time it would have been: Bring us any bas-relief model or pair of models and we can provide you with anything you want — a plaster copy, a metal copy, that is a galvano cast, a master pattern, a hub, a die, a matched pair of dies, struck medals, a cast medal, whatever. If you want your model “touched up” or lettering added, or your medals patinated, we can do that as well.

They took the concept Service-to-the-Medallic-Sculptor seriously. With their combined sculptural experience, knowledge and special equipment — electrogalvanic tanks and the first American Janvier — they were not only able to do any task requested, they did it with professional aplomb. Plus their network of sculptural contacts extended beyond New York City confines. Local NYC sculptors knew and respected the two Weil brothers as consummate craftsmen in their field.

This unspoken policy continued into the 1920s, even after they had hired Clyde Curlee Trees in 1919. When Tress recognized this was de rigor he chaffed under its restrictions. Instead of waiting for a sculptor to bring them a medal job he wanted to go seek medallic work and then commission a sculptor. This was sacrilege to the Weils. They would have none of it.

The situation continued until the Weils decided to sell the company to Clyde Trees. He then, starting in 1928, began aggressively seeking medallic work. He advertised for the first time. He sent out sales letters. He undoubtedly made sales calls and sales contacts.  Unfortunately the depression in the years following damped his results.

Trees policy toward sculptors then was: Medallic Art will contract for striking the medals then choose a sculptor suitable and appropriate for the job, for any kind of medal. He could still accept medal jobs brought to the firm by sculptors, and this did occur. But he began developing a coterie of sculptural talent he could call upon for any work. He also built an exhibit of past medal jobs where he invited a potential client and let him choose among previous struck medals. “Like that artist’s style?” he would ask a potential client. “We can certainly have that artist design and prepare similar work for your new medal.”

He took it one step further. He had long since known that most of he artists who prepared medals were members of one particular organization, the National Sculpture Society. He joined that society as an associate member.

He also did a bit of apple polishing. He invited members of the Society to a sit-down dinner at his tiny shop on New York’s upper Eastside 51st Street in 1937. He expected maybe two dozen to accept his invitation. To his surprise over seventy accepted. [They were shoe-horned in to the dinner on the first floor and to the showing of The Medal Maker on the second floor.]

Sculptors attending dinner at the Medallic Art Company, New York.

For decades it was a symbiotic relationship between Trees and National Sculpture Society members. For Trees it was the advantage of having a first-string team of very talented artists he could call upon to design and model very high grade medals. For NSS members it was a four-week commission that could quickly earn a substantial fee from Medallic Art Company’s quick checkbook.

Society members, recognizing Trees business acumen, named him their Society Treasurer. In return Trees put the Society’s finances in top shape and increased their endowment four fold. He remained in that trusted position for more than three decades until his death in 1960.

Appropriately his widow, Francis Kimberle Trees followed in Clyde’s footsteps as NSS Treasurer for another two decades. So the Trees dynasty benefitted the National Sculpture Society in more ways than officer talent for half a century. As a plus, MACO was never at a loss for sculptural talent.

So the policy became: Get the order for the medal and we can have an NSS member design and model it to your complete satisfaction.

First factory artist. That same policy continued past Trees’ death, with a trio in charge of the firm, Bill Louth (Trees nephew), Francis Kimberlee Trees (Clyde’s widow) and Julius Lauth (Trees most experienced employee).

When Clyde had contacted a new prospect he would first learn of their interest. He would then have a sketch artist prepare a drawing of a proposed medal design incorporating that interest. At first he would have a medallic artist make those sketches. Under the triumvirate of the three owners they found they could keep a sketch artist busy full time.

Also, beginning in 1951, they added a staff sculptor, their first “factory artist” as an assistant to Julius Lauth. Julius was in charge of buying art, dealing with the sculptors and issuing all the commissions to prepare medallic models, which often included the artist creating the designs as well.

For the sales staff, they were never to mention “staff artist.” Instead the company line was “all our models are made by freelance artists.” There was a reason for this, other than not having the expense of paying a full-time sculptor a wage he deserved. It gave all artists, particularly those National Sculpture Society members, the belief they had a chance at those lush MACO medal commissions.

Perhaps it was an economic reason to make all Medallic Art medals commissioned by outside artists, but it also achieved that one very important truism, they all look different!  Every medal is the best creative effort of a different artist.

Ramon Gordils, a Puerto Rican self-taught sculptor, was hired as Medallic Art’s in-house sculptor. At first he was employed only to do plaster work. If an outside sculptor brought in a positive model, and a negative was needed, Ramon would make the cast.

Then he was encouraged to do “touch-up.” To eliminate the tiny casting flaws, then sharpen up the lettering and detail. Make hair lines a little finer. Give the pupils in the eyes a little more attention. Improve the model. Also, it was learned, some of the most famous sculptors, no names need to be mentioned, created magnificent designs and models but had deplorable lettering.

Ramon could back-stop any artist. He could improve any artist’s model. Julius, as art director, and Ramon, as consummate craftsman, would always put their heads together over every model that came in. If the required change was more than Ramon should do, the original artist was called in and asked to remodel.

Julius had a way with high-ego artists. I once observed him ask an artist, in a very soft voice, “would it be better to have a few more tree branches here?”  The artist responded, “By George, Julius. I do believe your right.” He retrieved his model to spend two more day’s work in his studio.

Artists always tried to please Julius, not only because he controlled the purse strings, but also because he knew exactly how to improve a model to create great medallic art! He had thirty years experience when I knew him. He knew the field, he knew every piece of equipment in the plant, and he knew what made great Art in Medallic Art.

Thus the policy under Louth and Lauth: Get the medal order; we will commission a freelance sculptor to design and model to the client’s extreme satisfaction. The client could, if he so chose, name the sculptor in advance.

Thus MACO management became proficient in matching client to artist. And artist to a client’s pocket book.

On the high end, for example for Ford Motor Company, a medal to display the three generations of Fords, the best medallic portrait artist at the time, Anthony di Francisci was chosen. His model was magnificent. So was his fee, $5,000 I believe. The most ever paid an artist during my tenure at the firm.

On the low end, if the client wanted a simple design, mostly lettering or very simple art work, Julius often commissioned a hand engraver. There were three of four of these at any time in New York City. A couple could knock out a pair of dies in a day’s time. Thus Medallic Art could serve the full spectrum of clients.

When the company was sold by the triumvirate three owners to Don Schwartz in 1972 he, of course, established his own policy toward medallic sculptors. He tried to maintain cordial relations with the National Sculpture Society and its members, but he drifted away from using them for in coming work. In the end he had four artists in the art department, one sketch artist, and three modelers.

Great medallic artists, like great painters, composers and authors, have a different Muse.  It is not nine-to-five. It’s their Life. They are inspired! Their creative juices flow. Their imagination flies. Their creations tend to be spectacular!

What is Medallic Art’s policy be toward medallic sculptors? Accept every job. Match the artist to the amount the client wants to pay. Sell up.  Talk the client into the best artist he can afford. Learn the full spectrum of talent that is available. Develop artists but recognize the fire in the belly of an artist who can be channeled into greatness. Know what each artist can do and their fees.

Adopt this goal:  Create Great Art!

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What’s My Medal Worth?

“Please tell me what my medal is worth.”

I have been asked that question for over thirty years. Probably because I have been – at various times – a medal dealer, a medal collector, a medal manufacturer, a medal researcher, and even a medal appraiser.

It was most difficult when I was a medal dealer. When someone asked that question most often the person wanted to sell the medal they were inquiring about. If I gave the wrong reply and over estimated the value I could lose money when I went to sell it. If I gave too low an estimate the seller often detected this and would not sell to me. So I had to bring all my experience, all my accumulated knowledge about the piece at hand, and my sense of the current market to arrive at a dollar amount I was willing to pay.

There is no price catalog of medals. No Red Book. And I will tell you why. Medals are not like coins where millions were made, and they are extensively graded and can have as many as a dozen or more different grades, and dozens of wildly divergent values. Coins circulate, and are often available in the thousands. Medals don’t circulate and are often one of a kind, with a multitude of other factors that influence their “value.”

So let’s start with value. The four medal values are: bullion value, sentimental value, collector value and insurance value.

Bullion Value.
This is the value of the metal in which the medal is made – its composition. Bullion value is only of interest for medals struck in precious metals – silver, gold, platinum.  This value changes daily, even hourly as market factors influence the price. The price of precious metals is quoted in newspapers and on the internet for pure metal expressed in dollars per ounce.

To learn the bullion value of your metal, weigh it. If your scale is calibrated in metric Troy ounces (grains) it must be converted to avoirdupois ounces (grams), Multiply the weight in grams times the fineness of the metal. (Pure metal is .999, sterling is .925, coin metal is .900; gold is expressed in carats of 24 parts). Look on the edge: the exact fineness is required to be marked in some way since the beginning of the 20th century.

Then multiply that number by the daily price of that metal to learn bullion value of your medal (on that day). You should keep in mind that value when calculating any other value. Bullion value is the price of the precious metal once it is melted and available for reuse.

Sentimental Value.
If you have inherited a medal from a family member, your medal has sentimental value to you and often to other family members. To some this may be priceless, other family members could care less. Generally people keep medals their parents received.

Medals won by grandparents become of less interest – as are those of prior generations – and I have learned these are the medals family members are likely to dispose of.  So medals of, say, fifty years of age are often to be found on the “secondary market.”

Collector Value.
This is the secondary market, what is called the “current market value.” Its true definition is what a willing seller and a willing buyer would agree to when neither are under pressure.  Thus the only market for medals is what a collector would pay for it as a specimen for his or her collection. (There is another market – museums – but more often they would want the medal donated.)

So, what are the factors a collector considers when he wants to buy a medal for his collection? There are so many. Most important, perhaps, is subject matter – what is the theme of the medal. How attractive. Artist. Condition. Who made it. Perhaps size. How mounted. If it was an award medal, who was it awarded to.  And a lot of intangibles, like how often does it come on the market, or how many currently available. Others.

I made a list once of the topics medal enthusiasts collect. It ran about 300 topics. Obvious topics are space, aviation, Olympics, medical, presidents, military, naval. Every collector defines his own topic. Nobody tells him what to collect. But it can be quite obscure. One collector organization official I knew collected only trolley medals, but only from Philadelphia, and only before 1900. I think he had all three of them!

Since there have been thousands – millions – of different medals made since 1438, with Pisanello’s first Renaissance medal, you get a sense of the vast field collectors have to choose from. Two topics have a greater supply than there are collectors, religious and sports. Thus these don’t have a high value, but could have factors that do increase their value.

To adequately learn a value anyone who makes an appraisal must see the medal. He will look at things like the highpoints for wear, the edgelettering for clues on composition and maker. He will feel the edges, is it free of nicks? He might test for its ring – is it cast or struck?

So appraising medals is not an exact science. The best medal appraisers are medal dealers who constantly buy and sell, and must be on top of the market in medals. Collectors are fickle, fashions in collecting change. Often these dealers are specialists, since the field is so vast.

In all there may be a dozen or two full time medal dealers in America. And one full-time medal auction house. Auction prices are the absolute closest thing to a current market collector value. But the same medal in the same auction may sell for a different price – other factors may have influence the value.

So ask around. You can show your medal to a local coin dealer. He can tell you condition, but he probably won’t know the value. Ask the coin dealer to recommend someone who would know. Chances are he will recommend someone in another city. Write or email that medal dealer.  Send a photo or scan. Describe  width, edgelettering, and color (if you don’t know exactly what composition).

The medal dealer may ask you to send the medal for further inspection. It could mean the difference between a few dollars and many hundreds of dollars. You may have a medal of great interest to a medal collector.

Insurance Value.
This is highest value of all. It is based on “replacement cost” – buying a similar medal plus all the costs incurred in finding and acquiring the replacement medal. In addition to money, it might require a length of time to acquire a similar specimen.  After all, you might have to influence another collector to part with one from his collection!

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French HeadDaniel Chester French was commissioned to prepare the Catskill Aqueduct Medal in 1917. He chose a female head as his theme and modeled it in classical style. This included a beaded border of dots that further emphasized the classical treatment. It was sponsored by the American Numismatic Society (to their credit!) and issued in three-inch cast size in bronze and silver. It was also struck in dollar size 1 1/2-inch bronze and silver and thus became a so-called dollar, what collectors call a special class of silver-dollar size medals of somewhat souvenir status.

In 1932 president Clyde Curlee Trees of Medallic Art Company, which had produced the die-struck medals, chose the female head from the obverse of this medal to become his company’s trademark. He eliminated the classical circular beaded border but kept the female head intact. He ordered dies made in five different sizes (without the border) and the design became famous for its appearance in the company’s advertising, stationery, nameplates, business cards, even as a mintmark (first used by the firm in 1968).

In honor of its creator, Daniel Chester French, the trademark became known, throughout the company and in the medallic field, as the “French Head.” Also in a fortunate confluence of words and names, it also honored the native country of Medallic Art founders and the source of medallic art as an art medium, as French artists have been strong proponents of sculptural bas-relief and the glyptic field of medallic art. Further, France’s national mint in Paris has been a strong proponent of medallic art for over three hundred years.

Thus, medallic art – small “m” small “a” – became Medallic Art – capital “M” capital “A.” And Daniel Chester French’s classical female head symbolized both very well. President Trees had made an ideal choice. The symbol has stood the test of time and the approbation of the art field.

This symbol is ideal for another reason as well. Trademarks were first invented on medals!  The father of the art medal, Pisanello (Antonio Vittore Pisano,1397?-1455?, Italian sculptor, painter, inventor of the art medal,1439) , added little symbols to his portrait medals. These had very obscure meanings.

Lottie Salton, writing on her husband’s collection of Renaissance medals in 1959, revealed the name for a Pisanello portrait symbol was Impresa. She said you really had to know the person very well to understand the meaning of the symbol. Other medalists copied Pisanello’s idea, adding an impresa to their artistic creations.

This continued forward from the fifteenth century and the use of logos exploded in the modern world. But instead of continuing the obscurity, these symbols became simplified – and symbolic – of an entity, whether an organization, institution or even a nation.

Thus every organized body in the world today has a trademark, logo or symbol, to identify their existence – thanks to Pisanello!  And his impresa symbols first appearance on medals!

Fast forward to 1968. Franklin Mint had become widely successful promoting proof-surface coin-relief medals. This had created a demand by Medallic Art’s clients for similar medals. This year was the celebration of Illinois 150th anniversary, its Sesquicentennial. Head of the Illinois Sesquicentennial Commission was Malvin Hoffman. He had held a similar position in 1964 at the New York World’s Fair where he had become acquainted with Medallic Art Company personnel and products at that time.

For the Illinois celebration Hoffman wanted the best artist and the best medal. He chose a native Illinois sculptor, Trygve A. Rovelstad to create the models and Medallic Art to produce the art medal.  But he also had the Franklin Mint produce a proof-surface, coin-relief medal.

President Bill Louth recognized his firm should have struck all the medals for this event; he realized Medallic Art could have more business by being able to strike coin-relief medals. Previously the firm had provided coin-relief pieces only by striking on their 250-ton medal press, a slow process.

So, Medallic Art bought its first coining press. In Germany. From Schuller. And flew it to New York City! Time was critical. (However the profit from that one Illinois job more than offset that whopper of an air-freight bill!)

Since everything struck before was on knuckle-joint presses – by multiple striking – the concept of single-strike capability was unique to the firm. Louth wanted a trademark for Medallic Art coin-relief medals. He chose the term UNIMEDAL for a single-strike piece.

He called for conference in his office of all management, salesmen, production foreman and the author. “I want a trademark before you leave the room,” he challenged us. Even with the accumulated knowledge of all assembled we could not come up with a symbol for a single-struck item.

“Okay,” he said, “we’re going with the French Head.”  And so Rovelstad’s relief model for an art medal was remodeled for lower relief (that could be struck in a single blow). A small outline of the French Head within a circle was added to the plaster. On the struck pieces in 1½-inch size it was only a few millimeters wide.  But there it was: French’s female head in outline form, in another permutation.

The original event that inspired Daniel Chester French’s creation in 1917 was to honor the completion of the aqueduct (from the Catskills to New York City for the city’s water supply). For French to have created such an artistic design is sheer genius. The aqueduct proved successful, and although it has been refurbished 80 years later, it is still supplying New York City with its ever-increasing water needs.

French’s head was also successful, both on the medal and for Medallic Art’s trademark. It also provides a lesson for medallic artists everywhere – an inspiration to create their finest artistic work despite the subject, no matter how mundane.  After all, the original medal was created to honor a water pipe!

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Sawyer’s Indians

One of the most famous medal series, but also one that no collector owns, is the series of Indian bas-relief portraits by sculptor Edward Warren Sawyer. The series is known simply as “Sawyer’s Indians.”  They are known only in museums!

Sculptor Edward Warren Sawyer (1876-1932) in the early years of the 20th century traveled to the American West to live among the tribes of the American Indians. His goal was to capture portraits of prominent Indians.

This was not an easy task as the Indians believed such reproductions also captured their spirit. Thus they disliked, even prohibited, being photographed. Sawyer had to first gain their confidence – by living amongst them – then gently urging his chosen model to sit for him. Perhaps that action didn’t seem to extract the sprit from the body he was modeling with his clay. It was not like a photograph. His subject could see the slow progress in replicating his features and his adornment in the slowly mounting clay.

The result is a body of work unlike any other in American history or portraiture! Sawyer captured more than forty Indian images in highly realistic glyptic detail. They are preserved in two American museums – The Smithsonian Institution in their Numismatic Division Collections, and the American Numismatic Society – but notably, neither has the complete series,

Chief Tja-Yo-Ni

Chief Tja-Yo-Ni

Sawyer made at least three such study trips to the West. He lived among thirteen Indian tribes to select his more than forty subjects. While he selected chiefs, he also portrayed lesser tribe members as well. For all he recorded their tribal affiliation, for most of his subjects he recorded their Indian name, and often, the meaning of that name. As the Cheyenne’s Ho-Tua-Hwo-Ko-Mas means Buffalo Hump.

After the third trip Sawyer sought a bit more refined inspiration, He wanted to partake in an art atmosphere more suited to his talents. He wanted to go to France and share the inspirations of Paris.

But before he moved there he wrote of his portrait activity among the American Indians. His “My Work Among the Indians” was published in the American Journal of Numismatics. He somehow knew his work would be of numismatic importance.

We have record of five bas-relief portraits of non Indian subjects. He had these five made in galvano form by Henri Weil of Medallic Art Company. In fact he deposited with Henri all of his Indian plaster reliefs.

The present writer never cataloged the galvanos made by the company – only the medals struck by the firm. Sawyer never had any of his medallic work struck as medals, only by electrogalvanic casting.

Having said that, in 1975 long after his death in 1932 one of his Indian heads, Curley of the Crow Tribe, was put on the Janvier reducing machine and a 6-inch die cut. This also required a trimming die for a silhouette of the Indian head. This was intended for a plate insert, and as best as I remember the head was goldplated and affixed to a sterling silver plate. The marketing was not successful and any further action with “Sawyer’s Indians” abandoned.



It is not known, therefore, exactly when Sawyers’ plaster models were cast in metal. We do know the American Numismatic Society obtained and accessioned their pieces in 1940. This could have been a “make-work” project of Clyde Curle Trees, president at the time, to supplement the meager medallic jobs flowing through the plant in the late 1930 depression years.

However below is the entry in Dick Johnson Databank of American Artists on Edward Sawyer’s complete entry. It lists those Indian portraits from the published information on this series.

It appears the Indian galvanos were made in two sizes. Were these Sawyer’s original model sizes, or was some form of reductions made at Medallic Art is not known to this writer.

Thus more research is necessary for this most famous medallic series that no one has!


SAWYER, Edward Warren (1876-1932)  sculptor, medalist. Born Chicago, Illinois, 17 March 1876.  He moved to Paris 1912. Died Toulon, France, 16 July 1932.

Noted for preparing more than forty American Indian bas-reliefs from thirteen Indian tribes. Those listed below are those reliefs reproduced by Medallic Art Company in galvano form for the artist.

Exhibited five of these reliefs at National Academy of Design, 1907 (item 415) and nine at the International Exhibition of Contemporary Medals at the American Numismatic Society, 1910. One of his Sioux Indian Portraits was exhibited at F.I.D.E.M. Stockholm AF6 {1955} but exhibit catalog did not specify which of the three Sioux portraits (we have indicated Soto below).

Awarded: J. Sanford Saltus Medal for Medallic Art by American Numismatic Society, 1931.

G  A  L  V  A  N  O    S  E  R  I  E  S

American Indian Portrait Series:

1904 Arizona Indian Chief Tja-yo-ni Galvano
Medal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  ANS (IECM) 4

1904 Arizona Nol-To-I Galvano Medal . . . . . . . . . . .
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2179

1904 Yuma Ne-I-So-Meh Galvano Medal . . . . . . . . . . .
Collection: American Numismatic Soc [>1] . 1940.100.2172

1908 Apache Agua Caliente Galvano Medal . . . . . . . . .
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2185

1908 Apache Indian Scout Captain Coffey Galvano
Medal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANS (IECM) 3
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2186

1908 Apache Old Jim Agua Caliente Galvano Relief ANS (IECM) 8
Collection: American Numismatic Soc [>1] . 1940.100.2171
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  668:32

1908 Apache Without Name Galvano Relief . . . . .  ANS (IECM) 2,
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2176
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . . 668:33

1912 Apache Naiche Galvano Relief . . . . . . . . . . . .
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  668:34

1912 Arapahoe Ba-Haw (Big Bow) Galvano Relief . . . . . .
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2187
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  668:35

1912 Arapahoe Han-Ni-Ait Galvano Relief . . . . . . . . .
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2196
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  668:36

1912 Arapahoe Ne-Aie-Ta-Ha-Wa (Eagle Chief) Relief. . . .
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2197
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  668:37

1912 Arapahoe Esh-Sha-A-Nish-Is (Two Moons) Galvano Relief
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2199
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  668:38

1912 Cheyenne Be-Shae-Chi-Edi-Esha Galvano Relief . . .
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2193

1912 Cheyenne Ho-Tua-Hwo-Ko-Mas (Buffalo Hump)
Galvano Relief . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2184
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  668:39

1912 Cheyenne Ma-Ki-Na-Ko (Big Bear) Galvano Relief . . .
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2173
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  668:40

1912 South Cheyenne Che-Ho-Ni (Little Wolf) Galvano
Relief . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2198
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  668:41

1912 South Cheyenne Nogo-To-Mah Galvano Relief. . . . . .
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2168
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  668:42

1912 South Cheyenne Ma-Si-Ni (Red Breast) Galvano Relief
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2188
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  668:43

1912 Comanche Tah-Do-Ni-Pper Galvano Relief . . . . . . .
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2192
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  669:44

1912 Comanche Timbo Galvano Relief. . . . . . . . . . . .
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2182
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  669:45

1912 Crow Be-Sha-E-Chi-E-Di-Esha (Big Ox) Galvano Relief
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  669:46
Illustrated: National Sculpture Soc AE8 {1923} p . . 311

1912 Crow Curley-Custer Scout Galvano Relief. . . . . . .
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2194
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  669:47

1912 Crow Ech-Spa-Di-E-Ash (Hunts the Enemy) Galvano
Relief . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2167
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  669:48

1912 Kickapoo Be-Me-Tha Galvano Relief. . . . . . . . . .
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2181
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  669:49

1912 Kickapoo On-Ah-Shin-Nin-Nah Galvano Relief . . . . .
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2190
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  669:50

1912 Navajo Chief Tja-Yo-Ni Galvano Relief. . .  ANS (IECM) 4
Collection: American Numismatic Soc [>1] . 1940.100.2175
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  669:51
Illustrated: National Sculpture Soc AE8 {1923} p . . 311

1912 Navajo Est-Zan-Lopa Galvano Relief . . . . . . . . .
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2189
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  669:52

1912 Navajo Noi-To-I Galvano Relief . . . . . . . . . . .
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  669:53

1912 Oglala Sioux Chief Sota (Smoke) Galvano Relief . . .
Collection: American Numismatic Soc [>1]  0000.999.45988
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  669:54
Exhibited: AF6 {1955} F.I.D.E.M. Stockholm (1955). .  57

1912 Oglala Sioux Hunpe Ka (Moccasins) Galvano Relief . .
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  669:55

1912 Oglala Sioux Sunka Hanska (Tall Dog) Galvano Relief.
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2174
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  669:56

1912 Osage Kah-Wah-Se (Yellow Horse) Galvano Relief . . .
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2169
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  670:57

1912 Osage See-Hah (Buffalo Feet) Galvano Relief. . . . .
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2195
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  670:58

1912 Pawnee Sah-Cooh-Ru-Tu-Ree-Hoo (Big Sun) Galvano
Relief . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2200
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  670:59

1912 Pawnee Stah-Pe-U Galvano Relief. . . . . . . . . . .
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2170
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  670:60

1912 Pawnee Pee-Ru-Ths (Fat Woman) Galvano Relief . . . .
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2183
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  670:61

1912 Wichita Chief To-Wak-Oui-Jim Galvano Relief. . . . .
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . 1940.100.2180
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  670:62

1912 Yuma Nei-I-So-Meh Galvano Relief . . . . .  ANS (IECM) 7
Collection: Smithsonian National Numismatic. . .  670:63

G  A  L  V  A  N  O     R  E  L  I  E  F  S

1907 Gregory (Miriam) Galvano Relief. . . . . . . . . . . .
Collection: American Numismatic Society. . . . 1997.86.1

1908 Maurer (Alfred H.) Galvano Relief. . . . . . . . . ANS (IECM) 1
Collection: American Numismatic Society. .  1940.100.497

1908 Sawyer (Marie Christiani) Galvano Relief . .  ANS (IECM) 6
Collection: American Numismatic Society. .  1940.100.510

1909 Ullman (Eugene Paul Galvano Relief . . . . . . ANS (IECM) 5
Collection: American Numismatic Society. .  1940.100.517

1910 Osborne (Theodore E.) Galvano Relief . . .  ANS (IECM) 10
Collection: American Numismatic Society. .  1940.100.499

R  E  P  L  I  C  A  S    &    R  E  I  S  S  U  E  S

1975 Crow Curley-Custer Portrait Relief (relief die and
trimming die made from 1912 galvano original,
diestruck and trimmed to silhouette head). . . . . .
Auctions:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  J&J 14:458


C4 {1912} Comparette, Indian Galvano portraits, 32–63, p 668-670.

R  E  F  E  R  E  N  C  E  S

E3 {1902-30} Forrer 2:343, 8:188-190.

NE2 {1911} ANS (IECM) 1-9, p 289-290 (biography).

P1 {191x) Sawyer (Edward W.)  My Work Among the Indians American Journal of Numismatics 47: p 159.

P2 {1913} The Numismatist 26:8 (August 1913).

A10 {1915} Pan-Pacific Expo Art Exhibit Catalog.

AE8 {1923} NSS Exhibit Catalog, pp 218, 361.

P30 {1924} New York Times (23 January) 17:4.

D8 {1926} Fielding, p 319.

AE6 {1929} NSS Exhibit Catalog, p 285.

P30 {1932} New York Times (20 July) 15:1.

BA {1937} Who’s Who In American Art: 1937 [1ed:371].

AF6 {1955} F.I.D.E.M. Exhibition Catalog 6th Congress Stockholm (1955) 57, p 23.

D29 {1976} Samuels, p 421.

BF1 {1985} Falk, p 544.

D33 {1986} Opitz, p 815.

AE1 {1988} Falk, p 2:425.

AE5 {1990} National Academy of Design, p 461.

BF2 {1999} Falk. Who Was Who in American Art, p 3:2904.

101 {2003} Barter (Judith A,) Window on the West: Chicago and the Art of te New Frontier, 1890-1940, Chicago: Art Institute (2003) illus, p 38, 159, 184.

D3a {2006} Benezit.Dictionary of Artists, p 12:494.

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